As the name suggests, the Toulouse breed of geese was bred in France in the city of Toulouse. It is worth noting that in this city, work was initially carried out to breed a new goose species. Those individuals that were distinguished for their highest productivity participated in the crossing. Thanks to this, a wonderful breed of poultry appeared in the world, distinguished by high profitability.
Today, this species is actively grown by poultry farmers in Europe, America and even Asia.
Description and characteristics
To evaluate all the advantages and disadvantages of growing this variety, it is necessary to get acquainted with its description much closer. Toulouse geese have three bright features:
The weight of one individual can reach almost 12 kg. On average, this parameter is at the level of 7 kg. At home in our country, such a bird can weigh in the range of 6-10 kg.
Toulouse gander due to its size is grown for meat, as well as to get a fatty liver. Using a special diet, the liver in birds can grow up to 500 grams. Therefore, it is used for the preparation of pies and delicacies.
The description of the appearance of birds includes the following parameters:
- down soft gray. In adults, the plumage becomes white-gray,
- noticeable folds (1-2 pieces) in the abdomen. They are formed at about two months of age,
- short but wide enough head
- thick and elongated neck
- massive body
- the case is set horizontally
- massive but short knives. They are characterized by orange color,
- the beak is orange and straight,
- additional folds (“wallets”) are located at the base of the head,
Depending on the characteristics of the “wallet”, there are 4 subspecies of this species,
- "Purse" with a crease in the abdomen,
- There is a “purse”, no folds,
- there is a fold, but there is no “wallet”,
- without folds and "wallet".
The advantages of this breed include good feeding of poultry, excellent growth rate and significant fat reserves. However, the geese are slow and effete. They are characterized by loose construction. Also to the cons can be attributed weak maternal instinct. These geese do not tolerate high humidity and cold.
Feeding and maintenance
Toulouse geese should be kept in rooms where there is a heating system, as this variety is different in heat-loving. In the house where they are located, should always be above +20 degrees.
In addition, it is important that the room was clean and dry. Wood shavings, straw and sphagnum peat can be used as bedding.
This breed of poultry is very poorly adapted to new growing conditions. At low temperatures, their productivity deteriorates markedly.
Be sure to track the level of humidity in the house. Housekeeping is carried out twice a day. To combat parasites twice a month, geese need to be given a swim in the ashes and sand. For this purpose, a container filled with these components is placed in the goose box.
It is recommended to divide the gooseberry into sections. In each separate section should be no more than 50 individuals. On 1 square. m. The recommended density is 1 goose to 1.5 goose. The section should have the following parameters: width - 0.4 m, height - 0.5 m and length - 0.6 m.
Geese must walk and let bask in the sun.
For high productivity, the Toulouse breed of geese needs special feeding. Meals should be organized more than twice a day. And at night the birds eat more than during the day. Their diet should include:
- cereals (wheat, etc.),
- mineral substances (beneficial effect on the immune system of birds).
Also in the drinking bowl should always be clean and fresh water in sufficient quantity.
The process of breeding geese from Toulouse is a troublesome business, because this bird is characterized by emaciation. Therefore, there are a number of rules:
- conditions in the room where geese are located should be practically identical in summer and winter,
- regular control of geese. To increase the number of livestock, it is necessary to lay the eggs of one female for incubation under another hen (for example, turkey or chicken). If such actions are not feasible, then you will have to use an incubator. This is due to the fact that geese hatch eggs poorly and show little interest in them,
- in the incubator it is necessary to withstand the temperature and humidity parameters, as well as periodically turn the eggs for uniform heating,
- For chicks, specially developed feeds should be used. Their feeding should be done according to all the rules
- For the first 40 days, goslings are fed 6–7 times a day.
Following these rules, you can successfully breed this breed.
Toulouse geese are an excellent breed of meat poultry. However, to get a good way out, you need to try here, because caring for this breed is not easy.
The breed was obtained by French breeders near the city of Toulouse. During the research, scientists used productive birds of the most common breeds for improved content. As a result of many years of work, gray geese with improved productivity indices have appeared. Having gained fame in France, birds quickly spread throughout the world, they became popular in Europe, the USA and Russia.
Representatives of the breed can be characterized by sluggishness and squat, as well as significant body weight. With all the conditions of keeping, the mass of an adult individual can reach 11.5 kilograms in goose dogs, up to 9 kilograms in females. When breeding at home, when birds receive a large amount of food in a pasture, the weight of a gander reaches 10 kilogram marks, geese - up to 8 kilograms.
Most farmers feed the geese to get an expensive liver; the weight of this internal organ in individual birds reaches 500 grams. Through rapid growth and intense fat gain, the Toulouse breed of geese is used to make delicious pâté.
In young chicks, the plumage is gray, in adult birds the feather cover is dark gray. Such shade have wild relatives geese, which were subsequently domesticated. In the second month of life, representatives of the breed in the abdomen appear several fat folds. In the place of fastening of the head in some subspecies of Toulouse there is a wallet.
In nature, there are 4 varieties of Toulouse geese breed:
- with the presence of a wallet and fat fold in the abdomen,
- without a wallet and folds,
- with a fat fold without a wallet,
- with a purse in the head but without the presence of fat folds on the belly.
Depending on the presence or absence of the purse, representatives of the breed in question are called purse and bezkoshelkovymi. The first type of geese is usually more massive. Representatives of purse Toulouse geese have a wide short head, a thick neck, a massive body, a horizontally directed body. Legs powerful, straight beak, orange. The color of the plumage is gray with a white tinge; on the back and neck, the color of the plumage is darker, the flight feathers are almost black. The belly and the area under the tail are white, although there are representatives of the breed with brown feathers in these places.
The main advantages of Toulouse are:
- rapid increase in live weight
- significant weight of the carcass,
- easy feeding,
- quality fluff
- fast fat accumulation.
Despite a significant amount of advantages, this breed has its drawbacks. These are inactivity, insufficient maternal instinct in females, loose constitution, impossibility of keeping birds in conditions of high humidity and low temperatures.
Toulouse recommended to keep in insulated sheds due to the fact that such birds can get sick at low temperatures and high humidity, afraid of birds and drafts. In this regard, the farmer must always maintain the temperature in the barn within +20 degrees. The floor in the house should be dry with a clean bed of wood chips, broken straw or peat. These materials absorb moisture well.
Note!In winter, the litter is laid with a layer of at least 30 centimeters. For the destruction of pests, 500 grams of hydrated lime are added to each square meter of dry litter.
A special feature of the Toulouse breed is considered to be poor adaptation to the new climate; in cold weather, the productivity of these geese is reduced. When the content of birds at home, pay special attention to the humidity of the air in the room, this figure should be in the range of 60-65%. To improve the immunity of birds, cleaning in the shed is carried out at least once a day.
In order to avoid the appearance of parasites in the skin of geese in the house, several tanks are installed with a mixture of wood ash and sand. Geese will swim in this composition, clean the feathers to get rid of annoying pests. The bird house is divided into several cells, each of which must contain up to 50 birds. On each square meter of usable area place 1 goose or 1.5 goose. Also in the barn set feeders and drinkers, nests for hens. In addition, each nest with dimensions of 0.4 * 0.6 * 0.5 meters is intended for 2-3 females.
In order to increase productivity and save grain feed for geese, there are paddocks. When keeping Toulouse at home grazing, it is desirable to protect the low fence. A single canopy is installed on the railing, the overall dimensions of which are selected according to the number of birds. Increased productivity can be achieved if there is a reservoir on the run, if there is no pond, install swimming tanks.
Adult birds are given food at least 2 times a day. During the compilation of the diet, it is necessary to take into account that birds consume more birds at night than during the day. The farmer must constantly monitor the filling of the feeders, make a juicy, nutritious food.
Tip!To save expensive grain feeds in the summertime, constantly graze geese.
In the diet of birds should be present:
- starting feed (from the first days of life),
- wet mash,
- meat and bone meal or worms,
- various types of grain.
To obtain good gains in live weight of birds, one must pay attention not only to the quantity of food, but also to its quality. The composition of feed mixtures must contain various mineral components, such as salt, chalk. In addition to this, it is necessary to constantly add clean water to the troughs, install tanks with small pebbles, which will help improve the digestion of birds.
Introduction to the topic
Poultry farmers who want to quickly receive a guaranteed income from growing geese, we recommend to pay attention to the Toulouse breed. Being derived by experts in the 17th century, it is still one of the largest and fleshy on the planet. "Toulouse" is found in farms in Europe, parts of Asia, they are grown in large numbers in the United States. The meat of these birds is extremely tender and tasty, and the liver is considered an exquisite delicacy. Crossing Toulouse males with individuals of other breeds allows obtaining more productive and qualitative offspring.
It is assumed that this species was bred in France, in the city of Toulouse. Gray geese were taken as the basis, the most fleshy individuals were crossed. The task of the breeders was to get a new breed for domestic breeding, which has enhanced productive qualities. The results were excellent. For nearly three centuries, geese from Toulouse are considered one of the largest specimens displayed on domestic and industrial poultry farms.
In order to achieve such a tremendous success, the French breeders had to work hard, but in all subsequent centuries the need for goose meat from a number of European countries was mainly satisfied thanks to a new breed. Her individuals and still used in farms when crossing to produce productive and viable offspring.
Since this species was bred in France, it was in Europe that the Toulouse geese were widespread: the local climate is quite suitable for them. In our country, with its harsh climatic conditions, individuals of the breed in its pure form are rarely found. However, they are available, although they are mainly used for mating with local types.
Toulouse geese are in demand by small farms in the central part of the Russian Federation, where the climate is more temperate.
Description and characteristics
The ancestors of the Toulouse breed were ordinary large gray geese. Over the years, French breeders have carefully selected the best individuals, providing them with good care, maintenance and abundant feeding. The result was Toulouse geese, a description of the breed which is the following:
- tight and squat horizontal build,
- the head of an adult male is small, oval in shape, held on a dense and wide short neck,
- the beak is massive, without bends, orange,
- the back and chest are wide,
- wings fit loosely to sides,
- legs wide and short, also orange.
Experts distinguish four subspecies of Toulouse geese, which may differ from each other in appearance and productive characteristics. Individuals have or do not have:
- double fat folds on the stomach, hanging almost to the ground,
- special "purse" under the beak at the base of the neck. The dimensions of such a neck fold vary from very tiny to a few centimeters.
Geese without a “wallet” (silkless subspecies) are larger than their purse counterparts, but less productive — they can get more meat and liver from individuals of the purse subspecies, they are grown more often. But silkless breeds multiply better, so they are widely used in small farms and in private yards.
Coloring feather coating
In the Toulouse breed of geese, feathers have a dark gray color, although in some areas white feathers are found. In young individuals, the feather coating may have a brownish-gray tint, with age the feathers darken noticeably.
Feathers of the upper part of the body, on the head and neck - a rich gray color, chest and abdomen somewhat lighter. On the belly and in the tail area there are white feathers, but the tips of the wings are almost black. The brown color of the feathers in adult Toulouse is also found, but extremely rare.
Goslings are born, covered with a light gray down - a feature inherited by the breed from the gray ancestor.
Weight and egg production
With proper care and a balanced nutritional diet, it is possible to grow adult geese with the following indicators:
- males reach 10–11 kilos of live weight (sometimes more), females are about 7–8 kilos,
- The egg production in Toulouse geese is not large, it is considered to be excellent to receive about 40 eggs from one individual per year, on average, this number varies between 25 and 35 pieces. The weight of goose eggs is 180 - 200 grams,
- Up to 500 grams of liver can be obtained from an adult individual - the basis of high-quality tender and nutritious pate.
Necessary conditions for the content
Although the geese of the Toulouse breed is characterized by a certain whimsicalness, it is not difficult to grow them in any farm. The main thing is to properly organize the necessary conditions of detention, which will allow to achieve excellent results, getting a lot of meat and eggs.
The rules of keeping geese are simple.
- Species of the breed love heat, so the temperature in the house should be at least 20 degrees comfortable for its “residents”.
- The litter should be formed from straw and sawdust, wood chips are also suitable. The farmer needs to make sure that it stays dry and clean at all times - dampness adversely affects the inhabitants of the goose.
- For the winter, the layer of litter is increased, bringing the thickness from 30 cm to half a meter.
- It is recommended to divide the pack into groups of 50 heads each; nests are settled in solitude at the rate of two or three females per one nest.
To keep the birds healthy, they need to be kept clean. For this:
- housekeeping is organized every day,
- the room must be dry and warm even in winter
- in feed troughs and drinkers there is always fresh food and clean water,
- 6 cm of the feeder and 4 cm of the drinker are allocated for each adult
- The population density of the house meets the standards: 1 gander and 1.5 goose per square meter.
Walking and water treatments
With proper care, walking the Tuluz is required daily. However, since individuals of the purse subspecies have a loose construction, it is not recommended to graze them on open pastures - these birds are unable to independently harvest their food. Silk-free adult geese successfully graze in open spaces.
It is considered ideal to fence an open area for birds by erecting a lean-to overhang. Here geese will be able to walk in a warm season.
Помещение под гусятник организовывают рядом с водоемом, давая возможность птицам купаться во время выгула. Veterinarians argue that when water mating reproductive organs in geese work better, which increases the chances of getting more numerous offspring. Goslings to the water can be allowed, starting from one month of age, but make sure that the water temperature was above 16 degrees.
When there is no natural reservoir nearby, you can install a spacious container by filling it with water.
What should take care in winter
With the onset of cold weather, a special paddock for walking in a closed room of this breed is organized on a mandatory basis. It is better not to let the Toulouse players out in the winter, otherwise they will freeze their paws.
In addition, it is desirable to install a bath filled with ashes and sand several times a month - the geese, while bathing in it, will clean the feathers, getting rid of skin parasites. In winter, clean plumage protects birds from freezing.
What to feed
In the diet of an adult flock of geese at home usually include:
- combined feed
- wet mash,
- grain wheat and corn,
- mineral fortified supplements.
Of course, the feed must be of good quality and always fresh. Adult birds need feeding twice a day, small chicks are given protein food six to seven times a day. To feed the goslings that have not yet turned 40 days, you need finely chopped greens or a wet mash. After 40 days the number of feedings of geese is reduced.
Make sure that the troughs in the house are full at night - at night the Toulouse people also eat, and much more than during the day. Also in the drinking bowls for the night should be enough drinking water - clean and fresh.
Those who are only going to start breeding Toulouse geese should be aware of their negative qualities. These include:
- loose form of the body,
- low mobility
- no instinct hatching eggs.
However, some shortcomings are directly tied to the advantages already described earlier. For example, the inactivity of adults allows them to gain weight faster than representatives of other, more active, breeds do.
With the right approach, all the weaknesses can be minimized.
The heat-loving geese of the Toulouse breed do not adapt well to adverse conditions. Features of cultivation require the organization of special sites for walking, in the house you have to comply with the mandatory temperature regime. But the results justify all the effort - the young grow rapidly in weight, giving high-quality meat and liver in large quantities.
The geese of the Toulouse breed are quite massive and squat. When walking, they are slow due to the large weight, males can reach 11-12 kg, females a little less - no more than 8 kg. The sale of meat in bulk starts at the Christmas holidays. Feeding is carried out in order to obtain a large-sized liver, the weight of which in adult geese may be about 500 grams.
According to the description, the young of this breed has a light gray down, and more adults are covered with dark gray plumage. They got this color when breeding wild representatives, who were further cultivated. At the age of several months, 1-2 fat folds are formed on the stomach. According to the characteristics of the geese are divided into 4 varieties:
- With the presence of "wallet" and fat folds in the abdomen,
- With a “purse” at the base of the head, but without folds,
- With skin folds, but without a “wallet”,
- Without both signs.
Purse subspecies have a greater massiveness and inactivity, in contrast to bezkoshselkovyh, however, the productive qualities are much lower. The geese carcass is very wide and set low, the body is horizontal. Legs short and large, beak straight orange shade. The neck is not very long, but wide, the head is short.
When developing in favorable conditions, the plumage is a white-gray shade. The head is gray, but it changes to darker when moving to the neck and back. In this case, the end of the feathers may have a brown or black shade. The chest and torso is light gray, and in the abdomen a snow-white hue prevails. The tail part can overflow from white to gray plumage. An exceptional feature of this species is geese of brown and darker tones.
The advantages of the breed include:
- Large carcass size,
- High rates of growth and development,
- High quality fluff,
- A huge stock of fat.
The disadvantages are a sedentary lifestyle, demands for care and maintenance, poorly developed maternal instinct. They are also picky about the temperature and humidity conditions in the room.
Its egg production depends on the age of the goose; the older it is, the more eggs it can carry. At the age of 1 year, the female bears about 19 eggs, two years - 23-25 pieces, three years - up to 40 eggs. Their sizes are large, their weight is 190-200 grams, and the white shell is highly durable.
Since maternal instinct is poorly developed, eggs should be laid under representatives of other breeds. If the hatching was carried out in artificial conditions, then about 50% of the eggs will be fertilized. Of these, only 60% will be able to survive and develop normally. The goose of the Toulouse breed at a young age grows very quickly, so in two months it can reach a mass of 4 kg. Sexual maturity comes at the age of 240-250 days.
Representatives of the Toulouse breed are among the largest geese. Their weight at the age of two months reaches 4 kg, and in adults it reaches 10 kg. Toulouse geese have a massive body with a horizontally set body and a thick neck of medium length.
The dense fluffy plumage of Toulouse geese has a dark gray color in the upper part of the neck and wings, turning into a lighter shade on the chest. Feathers have a light border that takes on a white color in the tail section. The abdominal and back of the bird are also white. Juveniles have a lighter brownish-gray color.
By the age of two months, some individuals have a “wallet” under their beak, and a fat double fold on the stomach, which is closed behind. Purse species of geese are larger than those without stitches, but are less fertile.
Arriving in Russia
Unfortunately, Russian poultry farmers have almost no opportunity to appreciate the positive qualities of the Toulouse goose, since this bird does not tolerate temperature drops and cold winters. However, there was a way out of such a difficult situation - our breeders are actively using representatives of the breed for crossing with other geese to get birds more adapted to the Russian reality.
The warm french mild climate suits Toulouse more than the inhospitable Russian winters.
If you try to describe the Toulouse geese with just three words, the following would be best:
When they first met, these birds give the impression of phlegmatic slow-moving animals, never in a hurry. This behavioral feature gives them a special grace. Their large bodies seem to be created in order to gradually gain mass and grow a rather thick fat layer, for which Toulouse is valued by foodies all over the world.
The constitution of the Toulouse geese provided them with low mobility and some laziness.
Toulouse geese are the real champions in weight gain among other breeds, some individuals gain up to 12 kilograms of weight. External signs of the Toulouse geese correspond to the meat orientation and include features typical for meat breeds.
Table 1. Toulouse Geese: Exterior
Types of Toulouse Geese
Toulouse geese are usually divided into four types depending on the presence or absence of certain body parts, such as a purse and a fold, located on the stomach:
- geese, having a purse and a fold in the abdomen,
- geese, having a purse, but not having folds,
- geese, not having a wallet, but having a fold,
- geese that have no purse or folds.
The "wallet" is located at the Toulouse geese directly under the beak
Most often, the identification of Toulouse geese is carried out by the presence of the wallet, because the geese of this breed can be either purse or non-wallet. It is possible to carry a chick to a certain type already at the age of two months. The smaller the goose has the “additions” in the form of a purse or fold, the less fatty meat it will later receive from the farmer, since the main fat reserves are located in these bodily segments.
However, geese who do not have such bonuses have their positive sides - they are more adapted to life and can graze on an equal footing with other geese. In addition, due to the lack of fold, they are much less likely to get hypothermia when the drooping stomach contacts the soil. It is easiest to confuse such geese with geese of other breeds, since the wallet and fold are a kind of visiting card of Toulouse.
Toulouse goose without a wallet, but with a fat fold under the belly
For most representatives of the breed, the plumage has a gray tint, which may be lighter or darker depending on the particular individual. The brightest places are located, as a rule, in the abdomen and sternum. The darkest feathers grow on the back and neck. Some Toulouse geese have almost black feathers, which makes them stand out from the flock. Brown is considered the rarest color. Nestlings are born lighter, darker with age.
Toulouse geese of rare brown color
Benefits of breeding Toulouse Geese
Those farmers who successfully cope with the care of the Toulouse geese, waiting for the following "bonuses":
- The Toulouse breed is an early maturity, as can be seen by looking at a two-month-old chick, which already weighs at least 4 kilograms. Some poultry farmers slaughter Toulouse already at such a young age, because early slaughter allows you to get lean dietary meat of excellent quality,
Toulouse geese very quickly gain the weight needed for slaughter
Thanks to a sedentary lifestyle, Toulouse geese quickly gain both muscle and fat mass.
By the way! The greatest demand for Toulouse geese comes on Christmas Eve. The reason for such popularity is that most families prefer to use goose meat as the main Christmas dish. Therefore, most poultry farmers intensively fatten individuals precisely on the eve of this holiday. Unfortunately, on the territory of Russia it is not as relevant as the goose in general.
Gusyatina is an integral element of many Christmas feasts
As you can see, the advantages of the breed outweigh the disadvantages. Toulouse geese will decorate almost any yard, if you find the right approach to them and carefully monitor the conditions of detention. Having provided these heat-loving geese with suitable temperature and humidity of the air, you are unlikely to face big problems when growing them.
These calm birds very rarely go into conflicts or support them and get along well with other animals. In addition, due to the lack of love for an active lifestyle in Toulouse, farmers practically do not resort to such a cruel procedure as cutting the wings that geese do not use without that.
In skilled hands, the Toulouse geese can survive both a harsh winter and a hot summer.
Arrangement of the house
The structure of the house for geese is in many ways similar to the structure of houses for chickens, ducks, and so on. Therefore, if you are already familiar with the arrangement of rooms for birds, then much of what will be described later will be well known to you.
Gooseberry for 20 individuals
So, starting the design of the house for geese, it is important to consider the following nuances:
- one goose needs about a square meter of free space. However, it should be remembered that the Toulouse geese are considered large-sized animals, therefore the house should be built with a reserve, counting about one and a half meters per bird. So you can avoid unwanted overflow
Toulouse geese need a lot of free space
An example of a wooden feeder suitable for dry feed and mineral supplements
Floor of goose should be covered with a thick layer of absorbent litter
Supply and exhaust ventilation system
Many poultry farmers, when arranging a house, prefer not to purchase essential items, but to make them themselves - this allows significant savings. Even if you are new to breeding geese, then, most likely, you will be able to make bird feeders. Some variants of such homemade feeders are presented below.
Goose feeders do it yourself
If breeding geese is a new occupation for you, it is recommended that you familiarize yourself with the basic principles of keeping geese at home, described in a separate article on our portal.
Maturation and reproduction
Egg laying at Toulouse geese is usually timed to the end of winter, the beginning of spring. In two days the goose has time to lay one egg, respectively, the average annual productivity of the hens is 30-40 eggs. These eggs weigh at least 200 grams. The number of eggs taken down depends on the ration of the hens and on the conditions of detention. The more comfortable the goose, the better the indicators of its egg production.
Much of the eggs of Toulouse eggs turn out to be unfertilized.
However, even with good performance, the farmer must be prepared to “bring the eggs to mind” independently. Due to the lack of maternal instinct in females, poultry farmers use the services of both an incubator and other layers of other breeds and even species that happily incubate both their own eggs and those of others. Chicken, turkey, or other geese may be a hen.
By the way! To ensure the safety of the young, it is recommended to pour a few drops of potassium permanganate solution into the trough, which will prevent the infection of weak chicks.