Italian white geese were bred in Italy by crossing local geese with white Chinese geese specifically for getting broiler goose (young for meat) and fattening for fatty liver. In 1975, the Italian breed of geese was brought from Czechoslovakia to us.
The Italian breed of geese is intermediate in size between light and medium weight geese. Bred breed with white plumage. It is characterized by relatively high egg production. The instinct of hatching eggs is suppressed. In geese sometimes crested. Juveniles have a high growth rate: at 2 months of age, goslings have a live weight of 3.5-4.0 kg.
Italian geese fatten up mainly to get the liver. The liver of Italian geese can reach 350-400 g in weight. Species characteristics: gander weight - 6-7 kg, geese - 5-6 kg, egg production - 45-50 eggs per laying season. With two cycles egg production - 70-80 eggs. Egg mass - 140-170 g.
When crossing the Rhine and Italian geese get hybrids with excellent meat.
Maintenance and care of poultry.
To preserve and grow goslings, it is necessary to prepare a room for them in advance. The room for growing goslings must be cleaned of old bedding and litter, washed and disinfected with 2% caustic soda solution or other disinfectants available.
For insulation on the floor lay a litter. Preferably, the floor is sprinkled with lime lime at the rate of 0.5-1 kg per 1 m² of area. Any litter is used as a litter, but it must be dry and free from mold. Litter update every two to three days, because when growing goslings, litter gets wet more than in chickens or turkeys. For the cultivation of one gosling from 1 to 65 days of age requires 7.5 kg of litter. In the gooseberry maintain the required air temperature, set the feeders and drinkers.
So that the water from the drinker does not spill onto the litter, the drinkers are placed on iron trays that are covered with metal or wooden mesh. In the period from 1 to 10 days for drinking goslings, it is better to use auto-drinkers (glass jars with a capacity of 0.5, 1 and 3 liters.) From the age of 11 days they already use a drinker with a watering front of at least 3 cm per head. Water is changed 1-2 times a day.
One-day goslings are fed from a tray with a side height of 15-20 mm. Two-day goslings begin to feed from the troughs (trays with higher ribs), since they tramp the food on trays with a low rim. From one month of age, goslings are fed from feeders intended for adult geese - the front of feeding is 15 cm per goose. Feeders should be so much so that the goslings during feeding can all approach them simultaneously.
Density of planting young.
The large density of goslings makes their approach to drinking bowls and feeders more difficult, in a cramped room the litter becomes contaminated more quickly, and the moisture and stuffiness increases. In this part of the goslings are systematically undernourished and lagging behind in growth, outbreaks of various diseases are possible.
Standards goslings placement:
- From 1 to 20-30 days of age, the density of planting is 8-10 heads per 1 m².
- From 21-31 to 65-70 days of age - 4 heads per 1 m² of floor space.
- Further, the density of landing geese - 2 heads per 1m² floor area.
In a heated room, goslings contain 15-30 days depending on the season.
- If the goslings are vigorous, they run, they consume good food, and for rest they are arranged in small groups, 3-5 heads each, they do not pile up, which means that the room temperature is normal.
- If overheating of the goslings opens the beaks, lowers the wings, becomes sluggish, drinks a lot, reacts poorly to food, breathing in them becomes speeded up.
- If the heating is insufficient, the goslings freeze, cluster in a large group, refuse to feed, which leads to a large departure of the young in the first days of breeding.
If there is no ventilation, then the concentration of carbon dioxide in the roaster increases significantly. It harms the health of the young: goslings lose their appetite and they grow poorly. Ventilate the room from the first days of cultivation so that the air is clean and fresh. Optimum speed of air movement in rooms: 0.2-0.3 m per second (strong drafts should not be allowed!)
Of the light factors on the growth and development of young geese, the duration of daylight hours is most important. Gooses of food eat more with an extended light bottom, they do not cluster around feeders and drinkers, they grow faster.
In the first week of growing young stock, it is necessary to maintain round-the-clock coverage, then the goslings find troughs and drinkers more quickly, get used to the place. At night, you can leave a faint light, in which the goslings rest, and the hungry find food and water. From 15 to 30 days of age, the length of day is already 12-14 hours a day, and for older geese the light is turned off at night.
The content of young.
Goslings, grown without a hen, in warm sunny weather are released on the paddock from 5-7 days of age. You can use a fenced area planted with grass, first release for 20-30 minutes, gradually increasing this period. Fresh air and sun rays have a good effect on the health of the young. By 2 weeks goslings can be walked throughout the day. It is possible to accustom goslings to water walking, which contributes to a better regrowth of feathers and a reduction in the cases of plucking feathers. In rainy weather, the fluff with which the goslings are covered quickly gets wet and does not protect them from water and cold. Waste of wet and frozen goslings can be significant, therefore, in rainy cold weather, goslings are not recommended to be let out for walking.
In the backyard, it is advantageous to grow goslings for meat without pasturing up to 70-90 days of age. The geese are then kept in pens, richly fed with concentrated feed with the addition of at least 50% fresh greens, waste (small non-edible potatoes, vegetable garden tops, cabbage leaves, poor-quality cabbages and other vegetables unsuitable for human food.
For the holiday table, geese are fattened up on purpose, so they start fattening 2 weeks before the holiday. Geese fatten one or several heads in small pens. Each goose is planted in a wooden box (width 25-30 cm) to limit the movement of the bird. In this period, the goose is fed at least 3 times a day with oats, barley, crushed corn, and wheat waste. Litter falls to the floor through the opening, which is done in the back of the box in the days. The front of the box is made of slats between them, the goose can freely stretch its head to the feeding trough.
Our address: Republic of Adygea, Takhtamukaysky district, p. Enem, st. Gagarin 56, tel: +7 (989) 800-94-09.
Italian geese - valuable offal and premium meat
This breed is preferred for home breeding, especially in families with small children. Italian gander has a liver of a record weight of 350-400 g. This is a high-value dietary product that promotes the restoration of immunity and the overall health of immature children and adults, is in demand in restaurants and organic supermarkets.
Breed Italian white imported during Soviet times from Czechoslovakia, is currently considered the leader in the Russian Federation in the number of livestock
The Italian geese are distinguished by a rather high egg production rate for meat breeds, according to this indicator they are second only to the Gorky breed. Young goslings reach a commercial weight of 4.0-4.5 kg already by the age of 9 weeks (geese of other breeds - 3-3.5 kg). For this reason, this bird is considered one of the most profitable in the farm production, providing an increased turnover ratio. The demand for dietary goose meat with high energy value and by-products is high regardless of the season.
Italian goslings have a strong constitution and quickly gain weight.
Secrets of profitable poultry farming
Most families who are considering ways to generate income, pay attention to the farm. The availability of this type of activity is due not only to low prices for land and real estate in rural areas of the Russian Federation. Many people have their own plots and inherited rural houses, where you can create a farm without costs and primary capital.
500 goose farm
People go to the village for permanent residence at a young and mature age, thinking about a permanent salary. Goose poultry farming is the most optimal line of business that can produce fairly good earnings in the first year of breeding.
Italian geese - rural business without down payment
Natural poultry farming is considered a promising direction for small private farms that do not have large funds. Among all breeds of birds, goose meat leads in terms of turnover. Among the geese is a highly productive Italian breed that provides large marketable gains in just a few months. Despite the fact that the total number of Italian white whites in the Russian Federation comes out on top, the market potential is large enough to talk about any implementation risks.
The appearance of goslings at the end of the incubation period
Profitability of goose business on a rural household plot
Goose meat belongs to high-energy dietary products with low cost and always finds its buyer. In Italian geese, the liver has a consumer value (on average it is 7% of the total weight of the carcass), at current prices, the sale of the liver completely pays for production, and the cost is about $ 5 (up to $ 15 per kg) per individual.
Geese of the Italian breed with a commodity weight up to 4.5 kg
Growing geese in home gardens reaches 100% due to the use of available pasture and own premises. If chickens are raised to produce meat and eggs, then geese are predominantly for meat. Sufficient egg production of Italian geese allows you to quickly increase the number of young stock and the volume of sales of 9 weeks old goose weighing 4.5 kg, the wholesale price of meat on average from $ 1.5-3 per kg.
Life-sized hatching eggs of Italian geese
The feather and down of the Italian geese, the hatching egg is highly valued (the wholesale price is about $ 0.5). The average farm produces up to 1,500 hatching eggs per week, which are in great demand among homeowners. For sale leaves and goose fat.
The deli liver of Italian geese reaches a weight of 350-450 g (up to 600 g) and is an organic product of premium class.
Italian whites - breed characteristic
The industrial breed of geese, the Italian white, was imported to the USSR in 1975 from Czechoslovakia, by 1980 the population of state-owned poultry farms numbered about 35,000 individuals. Today in Russia it is the most common type of geese in the industrial and private sector.
Breeding goose of breed Italian white
- large poultry meat productivity, reaching a weight of 6-7 kg for gander, 5-6 kg for geese,
- plumage is white-white, sometimes with rare gray inclusions in hybrids,
- body shape - proportionally rounded, looks compact,
- beak - straight, orange-red shade,
- the head is neat, of medium size, it has no podklyuvnoy fold, cheek muscles are characteristic, often crested geese are found,
- neck - medium length,
- the chest is large, wide and deep, rounded, without folds to the stomach,
- the back is straight, wide, inclined proportionally to the back of the body,
- legs - powerful, having a reddish tint, without characteristic cones,
- tail - proportional, horizontal, tightly connected,
- they are distinguished by external grace and accuracy (this is one of the cleanest breeds of geese),
- egg production - medium, the highest for among meat breeds (with the exception of Gorky),
- fertilizer - 75-85% (bred herd to the number of hatching eggs),
Free whites Italian whites give higher quality meat
It takes 30 days to put the goslings out of the incubation egg. Goslings already in the second month have a live weight of 3-4 kg. They are distinguished by a bright temper, independence, character and activity, and they always keep separate on the pasture from other geese. May conflict with other groups of birds.
Duck on roost
For about 40 years, the breed has been used in the poultry farming of our country mainly for obtaining high-quality meat and liver. Goslings reach a commercial weight in just 9 weeks, they are mostly slaughtered up to 1 molt, in order to provide a marketable appearance to the carcass without the characteristic hemp - the rudiments of new feathers. Goose down is highly valued due to its softness, dense structure and snow-white color, it is purchased for the production of premium quality textiles at a good price.
Egg production and meat production
The geese of the Italian White breed differ in average egg production, for a cycle it is possible to get 40-55 eggs from an individual, for two cycles - 70-80 eggs. If the incubation mode is observed, the fertilizer can reach 90%. The breed is distinguished by getting strong chicks that are resistant to diseases.
The Italian-Gorky breed gives greater weight gain than the Italian
This quality provides good weight gain. Italian geese have a weak maternal instinct and rarely sit on eggs, mostly goslings are obtained by the industrial method (with incubation). In some farms, eggs are laid to Legart geese or for breeding they use an effective cross-breed Italian-Gorkov breed, which also incubates eggs well. All mixes with the Italian breed give delicious delicious meat.
In some farms, Italian whites are not killed at 9 weeks to 1 molt, but are grown to 5-6 months of age. Weight of goslings, depending on age, will be:
- 60 days: gander - 4 kg, females - up to 3.2 kg (minimum 2.8 kg),
- 90 days: gander - 5.2 kg, females - up to 4.6 kg (minimum 2.8 kg).
According to the characteristics, the meat obtained has an increased nutritional value and belongs to delicacies, the total fat content is up to 15%.
Comparative characteristics of breeds in egg production and productive weight
A distinctive feature of this type of domestic poultry is the high duration of its farm use, as well as the fairly rapid growth of its young. The chicks already in the second month of life reach 3-4 kg of maximum live weight.
Separately, it is necessary to note the unusual nature of the bird. Italian geese are quite active, mobile and independent. Moreover, when growing, this species always, even on pastures, keeps itself isolated from other geese and, if necessary, quite aggressively defends its autonomy.
It is easy to distinguish them. "Italians" are very graceful in motion and have a neat appearance. But most often they are recognizable by the characteristic "goose" bumps and under bruised folds absent on the forehead of males. When crossed with other breeds, Italian geese give the meat of the highest taste.
Care and feeding
The white geese of the Italian breed, as well as other species, are not too whimsical in content and to atmospheric conditions. They are quite adapted to areas with low temperatures, but they also tolerate a hot climate normally.
The only indispensable condition in ensuring a healthy bird habitat is the observance of sanitary and hygienic standards in the arrangement of the gooseberry. For example, all litter material must always be dry, clean and without a hint of mold.
In the cold season it is necessary to use insulated bedding of straw and peat. In addition, regardless of the size of the room, strict observance of the cleanliness of the house with its annual cleansing of litter, dirt, dust and old bedding is required.
As for food, then today a mixed pasture-driving system is actively practiced. So, along with free meadow grazing, to improve goose condition, the main herbal diet of the bird is additionally diluted with nutritious foods, animal products (eggs, cottage cheese), mineral substances (chalk, crushed shell), vegetable remains, grass flour and coniferous-leaf brooms.
In addition, in the feeders the bird should always have clean drinking water. It is also important to strictly observe the fourfold geese eating regime.
"Italians" are considered one of the most convenient breeding geese for breeding, which gives high rates of productivity. Not the last role in this is played by the well-developed instinct of egg hatching in white Italian geese. In addition, the care of chicks is simple and does not require special conditions.
Gooses of Italian breed have a good growth rate and by the 63rd week of life they reach a weight of 3-4 kg. Even two-month-old goose carcasses are endowed with excellent commercial qualities of meat.
The population of Italian geese today is one of the most numerous and popular in Russia. Основные же регионы распространения этой породы — Воронежская, Липецкая, Омская, Смоленская, Суздальская, Челябинская, Орловская, Курганская, Белгородская, московская области и Краснодарский край. Средняя цена за одного суточного птенца составляет 250−350 рублей.
Приобрести же птиц этой породы можно в следующих фермерских хозяйствах:
Разведение гусей итальянской породы было начато в 19 веке. Farmers crossed local aboriginal birds with individuals brought from China. The introduction of new blood gave impetus to the development of the breed. From Italy, a new species of geese quickly spread throughout Europe.
In the Soviet Union, the breed appeared only in 1975. The first Italian geese were brought from Czechoslovakia. The breed quickly gained popularity among Soviet citizens who were not spoiled by a productive bird. The population of Italian geese grew rapidly, by 1980 there were about 35 thousand individuals. The bird, bred in a warm country, quickly adapted to the climate of the Soviet Union, which ensured its high popularity.
If the farmer already has a room for keeping a bird, then that's fine. But if there is no goose, you can build it yourself. First you need to create a project based on the number of alleged birds. But the planned livestock is better to take into account with a stock: sales will increase, young goslings will grow up, new breeds will be purchased.
Shed can be built from different materials, but the most popular cinder block. It is produced in any region, it will be easy to buy it. Construction of cinder block is fast, so the goose can be built in a couple of months. If the farmer lives in a cold area, then the shed will need to be warmed.
For keeping 20 geese you will need to build a room of 20 square meters. Ceiling height should be like in a house, at least 2 meters. In such a goose it will be easier to care for the bird, and the air in it will circulate much better. The roof can be dual-pitched, it is convenient to clean snow from it in winter.
In the gooseberry should be both artificial and natural lighting. A sufficient number of windows will save electricity. Access of sunlight favorably affects geese, especially during the breeding season. It is desirable to equip the halls in the room, they will prevent the passage of cold air in the winter season.
Caring for geese
In summer, the bird needs to provide sufficient walking. From the description of the Italian geese it follows that they simply need green mass. On the walk the bird will be able to eat as much grass as he wants. Eating green mass benefits goose health, while the farmer saves on feed. In the summer, a variety of plants can make up to 80% of the bird's diet.
Feeding geese can be industrial feed. This is very convenient for the farmer, because everything is already balanced in the finished diet, and you don’t need to add anything. If for some reason the owner does not want to give the goose feed, then he needs to buy a grain crusher in advance. With the help of the mechanism the farmer will be able to grind oats, barley, grass, vegetables.
For the preparation of homemade food to the grain add chalk, salt and vitamin supplements. In a separate bowl, put the shell rock, which improves digestion in poultry. If the farmer keeps the cows, then the geese for better growth, you can feed serum. The bird will not refuse vegetables: potatoes, zucchini, pumpkin.
Features of winter maintenance
Many have seen photos of geese of the Italian breed walking in the snow in winter. Some farmers harden their bird and take it out for walking even in the cold. But it is necessary to gradually prepare geese for winter cold, therefore, initially, the stay in the open air should not be long. The Italian bird is unpretentious and enduring, so it easily adapts to the frost.
The room where geese are kept in winter is not necessary to be heated in addition. But the draft in the barn can not be allowed, the bird can get sick. Usually in early autumn, farmers inspect the winter premises and close holes in it.
In the cold season geese are kept on a deep bed of sawdust, peat or straw. It is laid and not changed until the spring, just pour a clean layer if necessary. In the depth of the litter, decomposition processes soon begin to occur, and a large amount of heat is emitted, so the geese do not freeze. If the room is built soundly, then the inside temperature will always be above zero, even if the street starts to freeze.
Italian geese are mainly bred by incubation. This is due to the fact that females reluctantly sit on the eggs. Their maternal instinct is poorly developed, so it is easier for the farmer to use the incubator. You can lay eggs on geese of other breeds, and they will successfully raise Italian chicks. But sometimes there are exceptions, but to check the maternal instinct in a particular bird can only be experienced. The first eggs of the female begin to carry from 9-10 months. Reproductive age in birds with good care can last up to 8-10 years.
Italian geese have good health, they usually have a high fertility, regardless of the season. With proper transportation of hatching eggs, the farmer can count on good hatchability. Especially increases the chances of the emergence of a large number of chicks using units with automatic flip mechanism.
The chicks that were raised by the hen practically do not need human help. From the third day on, mother begins to breed in the pasture. She ensures that the goslings eat well and protects them from any danger. But the farmer must pay special attention to weak chicks. In some cases, it is better to isolate such goslings and provide them with enhanced care. If the chicks are well fed and give them all the necessary vitamins, then soon they will catch up in the development of their healthier brethren.
It is necessary to grow up goslings from an incubator in another way. Nestlings hatch from eggs on the 28th day on their own, but some of them may require human help. In this case, the farmer can carefully remove part of the shell, thereby freeing the little goose. At first, the chicks live in brooder - a special place where it is dry, warm and light. After the birth of goslings placed under the lamp.
After the chicks are a little dry, they are fed. You can offer them a little shredded boiled eggs, but it is better to give the goslings industrial feed for the smallest. Drinkers should always be filled with water. In the first days, you can add a small amount of manganese to them for disinfection. The weaker goslings are removed from their strong brethren, as they first need special care and enhanced nutrition.
Italian geese are a great choice for the farmer. They have very tasty meat, they quickly gain weight and carry large eggs. In addition, the bird is very beautiful, which can not but rejoice the owner.
- Females carry 45 to 55 eggs per season. They have excellent taste and weight of about 160 g. From the geese of this breed it is often possible to achieve the second autumn egg-laying.
- Adult Italian birds can reach a weight of up to 8 kg. Their meat has excellent taste.
- The liver of Italian geese is used to make foie gras. With some systems of fattening the weight of an organ can reach 500-600 g.
High fertility allows the farmer to run a business for the implementation of hatching eggs. They are in special demand in the spring, when the population begins to take out their goslings for the summer.
In the photo, Italian geese are very beautiful, which increases the demand for this type of bird. When buying a young farmer, you need to put it in quarantine. This must be done, even if the bird has a veterinary certificate. After quarantine, the farmer needs to invite a doctor to examine the Italian geese. If all is well, then he will allow the bird to be released to the main flock.
Breed historyItalian white geese were bred as a separate breed in the nineteenth century. In the selection work the Italians used native birds of white color and geese brought from the Middle Kingdom.
Adding "Chinese blood" has significantly improved the original breeding material.
Since Italy is traditionally one of the most visited countries in Europe, the new breed was quickly brought by tourists, first to neighboring countries, and later to more remote regions.
Soviet citizens, not spoiled by trips to capitalist countries, got the opportunity to get acquainted with the white Italian bird much later than the Europeans. This happened in 1975, when several individuals were experimentally brought into the Union from friendly Czechoslovakia. Surprisingly, already in 1980 the bird population in the Soviet territory was about 35 thousand heads. Since then, Italian geese have firmly established themselves on 1/6 of the land and today they are actively grown both in small plots and in large poultry farms.
Description and features
Imagine an ordinary snow-white goose, without any additional fads in appearance, such as frightening growths on the beak of a male, but ideally folded and literally exuding confidence and strength. This is an exact portrait of the “Italian”.
Appearance and physique
Here is a more detailed description of the Italian goose:
- tail - well developed, has a horizontal fit, tight to the body,
- chest - slightly raised, rounded, well developed,
- back - well developed, slightly arched and slightly sloping towards the tail,
- belly - deep and rounded, but without fat folds,
- wings - long, set high, snug against the body,
- trunk - proportional, rounded, slightly elongated and elevated at the front,
- head - small in size, proportional, the back of the head is flat, the cheeks are well developed, the geese sometimes have a tuft,
- eyes - big, blue, with orange eyelids,
- beak - straight, short and thin, orange-colored, without a hump and a characteristic "bump" that distinguishes the male in some breeds of geese,
- neck: short, very elegant, slightly arched at the top,
- shins - long and well developed,
- feet - strong and powerful, not long, of the same color as the beak, but the paws are a little lighter,
- plumage - dense and hard, downy layer is small,
- color - white, ideally completely homogeneous, but sometimes several gray feathers can occur, it is considered a disadvantage, but insignificant.
However, the same drawbacks, if they are not very pronounced and insignificant, are permissible, although the value of such a bird for breeding is reduced.
As befits the legendary Italian geese, the birds of this breed differ activity, rapidity and independent character. Males are very attentive to the protection of their wards, not allowing the feathered family, not only natural enemies, but also their relatives of other species and breeds. Carrying out guard functions, ganders often act as instigators of conflicts and can arrange small fights.
But the female half of the Italian goose family does not differ in this responsibility to fulfill its duties. Mummies from geese of this breed turn out, frankly, so-so. Maternal instinct and incubation instinct is rather poorly developed in them, therefore in small households where there is no own incubator, “cuckoo” eggs fall put other geese. For example, such breeds as the Danish legart, Arzamas, Vladimir clay, large gray, Tula fighting, Shadrinsk (Ural) breeds cope well not only with their own eggs, but also with foreign eggs.
From this point of view, the Ural geese are a good option, they are not larger, and sometimes even a little smaller than the “Italians”. However, some farmers claim that the “Italians” themselves can successfully cope with the task, each owner has his own secrets how to make the goose sit on the eggs.
In terms of productivity, Italian white geese are an excellent choice. Their meat and liver have excellent taste, they are well gaining weight, in addition, the breed has good egg production. The soft and dense feathers of these birds, which also have a wonderful natural whiteness, are widely used in light industry, especially when sewing warm clothing. So, with each bird with regular plucking, you can get up to 100 g of fluff and up to 200 g of feather each year.
When they start to nest and what egg production
The Italian white goose reaches sexual maturity by 8–10 months and averages on average during the year 45 to 55 fairly large eggs (the mass of each is about 165 g) with snow-white, like bird plumage, shell.
With regard to Italian whites, it is possible to achieve the second clutch in the fall, in which case the annual egg-laying rate increases to 70–80, and sometimes to 90 eggs. In total, the period of good egg production of a goose lasts 8–10 years, but it remains at the maximum level for 5 years.
It should be noted that these parameters of egg production are quantitatively classified as medium in terms of quantity and weight of eggs, and as high in terms of the length of the period of egg production.
Precocity and live weight
Adult geese of Italian breed weigh:
- males - from 5.5 to 8 kg,
- females - from 4.5 to 6 kg.
As a result, Italian whites belong to the few breeds that allow youngsters to score next spring. Bird reaches commodity sizes already by 9 weeks, and it is better to hammer it in before the first molt, in this case the carcass will look much more attractive (just by the absence of characteristic “stumps” on the carcass appearing after the molt, you can distinguish a young goose from a mature bird).
Still, rearing chicks up to 5-6 months is considered economically feasible, by this age they usually gain their final weight. Foie gras liver In addition to delicious meat (which, by the way, due to its high density, ideal for smoking and curing), the breed is quite suitable for such a specific use as feeding fatty liver.
Those who managed to reach a compromise with their conscience should know that the forced fattening of geese of the Italian breed allows you to get a liver weighing 500-600 g, which is about 7% of body weight. For this purpose, either adult birds or young animals between the ages of three to six months are used (the live weight of the individual should not initially be less than 4.2 kg). Fattening for fatty liver. It should also be noted that for larger meat carcasses, Italian geese are often mated with heavy goose, but such broiler geese are not used in the parent herd, since they have less egg production than pure-blood “Italians”.
For Italian geese, traditional pen and grazing systemin which the bird receives a part of its ration from the farmer, and the rest (first of all, it concerns green grass) produces independently.
In this case, the usual four meals a day, the necessary geese, can be fully provided only by one feeding in the evening, and during the day the flock will frolic and feed on free-range. The daily ration of geese for one individual should look like this:
You can add to the diet of geese products of animal origin, in particular, dairy products, eggs. But sprouted potatoes are contraindicated for birds, because the glycoside of corned beef contained in such tubers is quite a strong poison. For the same reason, you can not add to the mash potato broth. And, of course, we should not forget that birds should always have unhindered access to clean water.
An important mistake that beginner farmers often make is that newly hatched chicks begin to feed immediately. Do this categorically should not be!
Feed goslings need for age, following such a scheme (the amount is indicated in grams):
Further, starting from 3-4 months, the amount of protein and concentrated food should be drastically reduced, because by this age the set of muscle mass is completed, and the excess feed will go “into fat”, which will significantly lower the quality of the carcass.
How to equip a goose
The following requirements are imposed on the gooseberry:
- Dimensions. Goose is a large and active bird, ideally should strive to ensure that each individual has at least 1 m² of area. The optimum height is 2.1 m.
- Isolation. It is necessary to avoid sharing the geese with other agricultural birds, and Italian whites - even with other goose breeds. It is not only a matter of possible conflicts, but also in different conditions that are necessary for one or another type. So, geese create high humidity in the house, because they constantly splash in drinkers, this can lead to an increase in the incidence of chickens. On the other hand, for stable egg production, chickens need artificial finishing of light, while geese need not rush ahead of time.
- Lighting. Goose will have enough natural light if there are large windows in the house (well insulated). Общая площадь оконных проёмов при указанной выше высоте помещения должна составлять не менее 10–15% от площади пола.
- Защита от осадков и ветра (сквозняков), а также хищников, грызунов и других переносчиков инфекций.
- Хорошая вентиляция. Застой воздуха увеличивает риск грибковых и других инфекционных заболеваний.
- Влажность на уровне 65–75%.
- Подстилка. В птичнике она выполняет две функции — гигиеническую (впитывает влагу, вбирает грязь) и одновременно является утеплителем. Поэтому состав подстилки зависит от времени года.In the summer, sand or sawdust will be suitable for this purpose (it is better to use coniferous trees), in winter it is better to use straw (dry and clean) or peat, and they should be laid in a layer of at least 12–15 cm.
Italian whites tolerate temperature changes well and, in general, can remain healthy and happy in both heat and frost. Another thing is that in order to maximize the weight gain of youngsters in the house, it is recommended to maintain the temperature at + 12 ° C to + 15 ° C, since it is in such conditions that the birds have an increased appetite and, accordingly, eat more food.
Walking and access to water
Since the breed in question is distinguished by its truly Italian character, it is not very suitable for her to be in a closed aviary. Moreover, in this case, the farmer needs to provide the feathered herd with a significant dietary supplement, which can be avoided if the geese get the opportunity free grazing. Thus, walks are necessary for Italian white for two reasons: to give an outlet with a key of energy and to have a good meal. But without a reservoir, these waterfowl just can do well.
But Italian geese, unlike their heavy relatives, can perfectly perform the act of love on land, and in the presence of an incubator, the question of wetting eggs disappears by itself (however, ordinary troughs filled with water are suitable for this purpose). The growth rate and egg production rates are not affected by the proximity of the reservoir.
How to endure winter cold
Italian whites tolerate frost well, so additional heating in the house is not necessary. It is only important that there are no gaps in the room, and additional heat can be obtained through proper use of the litter. So, straw and peat, thickly lined in a roaster, as far as pollution is not removed, as is the case in summer. Clean litter is placed directly on top of the “old” one. After some time, decomposition processes begin in the lower layers of organic matter, accompanied by the release of heat. With good insulation, this is quite enough so that the indoor temperature does not fall below zero.
Advantages and disadvantages
To unconditional merits Italian breed should be attributed:
- high egg fertilization rates, good incubation results, excellent survival of the young,
- early maturity, very fast weight gain,
- the ability to easily obtain larger broilers by mating females with heavy breeds,
- good egg production,
- long-term stable egg production (five years),
- high taste of meat,
- versatility (can be grown for meat, fatty liver, for the production of eggs, as well as for getting fluff and feather),
- good adaptability to different climatic conditions,
- the possibility of keeping away from the reservoir,
- grace and visual appeal.
Scroll deficiencies looks much shorter. Among them are:
- poorly expressed incubation instinct,
- aggressive nature of the gander, excluding joint content with other breeds.
Poultry breeders reviews about the breed
It is safe to say that Italian whites are an excellent choice for a novice poultry farmer, regardless of whether he is going to raise geese as poultry or open his own farm. For over a hundred years this breed is rightly considered to be one of the most successful not only in its homeland, but also in many other countries, including Russia, Ukraine and Belarus.
As for food, green fodder is an indispensable component. It is necessary for both adults and young. In the summer it is advisable to feed on pastures, meadows.
Birds are taught to have a one-time evening feeding, so that in the evening she returns home.
Summertime is the best time for breeding. - Most of the time the birds spend on grazing. The feed is well saved, which leads to an increase in profitability. Root vegetables, bran or oilcake will be an excellent additive.
In winter they feed with grain mixtures prepared in advance in summer (hay, silage). The geese are fed three times a day - early in the morning, noon and after dark. Be sure to enter into the diet vitamins, in the winter it is necessary to stabilize the metabolism.
Prepare separate feeders for chalk and shell. They are required to improve digestion.
Spruce and pine needles perfectly compensate for the lack of vitamin C, and also improves appetite, egg production and egg quality.
In the reservoirs - reeds, part, nasturtium.
Cereals - rye, oats, timothy grass, bluegrass, couch grass.
Spruce and pine needles.
If we talk about the average diet of one individual per day, then it is enough:
- Green food - 700 gr.,
- Grass meal - 300 gr.,
- Vegetables and root vegetables - 500 gr,
- Grain - 170g.,
- Mineral feed - 25 gr.
Before the laying of eggs, geese need enhanced nutrition. It must be balanced with a green roughage content.
Grain and flour food leads to poultry obesity, it must be given a little, strictly according to the norms.
Feeding the hens is increased up to three times a day. A week before egg-laying, it is necessary to introduce synthetic vitamins into the diet.
Feeding on meat
If geese are fattened specifically for meat, then the diet should be given special attention. Greens should take half the daily rate. Grain, beans, oilcake - the remaining 50%
If the nutrition is correct, then in two and a half months the goslings will be about four kilograms. For fattening geese for meat, two methods are used:
- Intensive (fast) - it is very beneficial because the bird starts to slaughter in two and a half months. A feature of the intensive method is to limit the birds in motion. To do this, use small boxes or cells with a hole to access the feeder. Mainly corn, oats, wheat and barley are used. The bird grows much faster and gains weight.
- Meadow (oatmeal) - is used much more often. Maximum use of pastures leads to savings in feed. Geese are not picky, but for fattening for meat, pasture must be chosen most carefully. A month before the slaughter, nutrition is enhanced Oats - required, as well as protein foods. Feeders should not be empty, as well as drinkers. Geese love to eat and at night - the light is recommended to leave muffled.
The first feed goose is egg yolk. It is necessary to boil it hard-boiled, chop and add a little of any sifted cereals. The first 3-4 days are fed with yellow.
- Cooked Porridge (millet, corn, millet),
- Blender (crushed grain, bran, carrots, eggs, clover, nettle, bean and cereal grasses),
- Boiled potatoes.
Tip! Goslings who already have half a month can add raw root vegetables to their diet. They must be very finely chopped.
When goslings become a month old, you can start practicing walking. From the 4th week of life, the goslings' organism has already completely become stronger and becomes accustomed to different foods.
From that moment on, they are ready to gain weight for further slaughter.
Where to buy Italian geese
- Goose farm. Moscow region, Chekhovsky district, Alferovo village, tel. (929) 654-43-65, e-mail: [email protected],
- Breeding plant Makhalov. Address: Kurgan, st. K.M., 56a, tel. 007 (3522) 486-303, e-mail: www.gusi-urala.ru,
- LLC Invacorp Agro (Farm "Demidov Geese"). Address: Smolensk region., Demidov rn, d.Senino, tel. (909) 258-88-98,
- Mozhaisk private residence. Address: Moscow region, Mozhaisky district, tel. 8-903-001-84-29,
- LPH Keys, LLC, Kurgan. Address: Kurgan region, p. Klyuchi, st. Lesnaya, 1, tel (3522) 549292.
Italian gosling will cost you around 350 rubles per head, and a large adult gander - 2500.
And this is how Italians look on video:
Young animals have a good immune system, frisky, quickly gaining weight. Special care is not required, it is enough to ensure proper feeding. You can keep the chicks either in a separate brooder, or give it to the care of the mother, who takes care of their safety and rapid development.