- Apple "White filling": characteristics of the variety, the rules of planting and care
- Silver Hoof apple tree: description of the variety and cultivation agrotechnology
- Colony-shaped apple "Vasyugan": description of the variety, planting and care
Initially, Bely pouring apple trees were grown only in the North-West and Central regions. Today it can be found in many gardens of Siberia, Altai and the Urals. Begins to grow an adult tree in mid-July.
Characteristics of the apple tree "White filling"
The varietal tree is medium growth, powerful, with a round or pyramidal dense crown. In adulthood, the plant reaches 5 m in height. The foliage is gray-green, medium size. The lower part of the leaf plate is covered with a light matte hairiness. Brown-olive shoots of medium thickness, strongly pubescent. Vigorous flowering of delicate pinkish-white buds occurs in the middle terms. The advantage of the breed is the resistance of the buds to the spring cooling.
The variety is inherent in late fruiting. The first apples appear on the trees in the sixth year after the planting of seedlings. By the age of ten comes the peak of plant productivity. A mature tree is able to produce up to 200 kg of selected fruits annually. To increase the yield required to plant next to the "White bulk" apples of other varieties to help in cross-pollination.
Fruits are rounded with a slight cone. Weight varies between 100-200 g. Apples are colored light yellow and have juicy white flesh. The taste is delicate and juicy with a slight sourness. Fruits are stored for long, only 2-3 weeks. Even the slightest mechanical damage can ruin a fruit in a couple of days.
The grade "White filling" is characterized by average resistance to diseases and wreckers. Especially often the breed suffers from scab leaves and fruits.
Planting and care of apple varieties "White filling"
Apple seedlings can be planted in spring or autumn, depending on their age. Young plants, whose age has not reached two years, rooted in the spring. Older seedlings can be planted in the fall, before October 15 inclusive.
Landings are made on hilly areas with a low abutment of groundwater. It is important that the apple tree grows in a well-lit place, because even partial shading of the crown of the fruit tree will affect its yield. The soil “White filling” prefers black soil with a neutral pH level.
Seedlings are planted in deep holes (depth up to 80 cm). Landing site in advance enriched with compost, make peat. Before planting, the roots of the seedling are soaked in a clay mash. The stalk is set in the hole strictly vertically, carefully straightening the roots on the bottom. In a properly planted plant, the root neck should be 2-3 cm above ground level. A seedling is tied to a peg so that it develops in the right direction. Plot at the base of the trunk mulch sawdust or peat.
"White filling" loves moisture. The more often you water the tree, the larger and juicier the apples will be. But it is impossible to flood the roots and make a marsh on the surface, otherwise rotting will begin. It is enough to water the sapling once a week using the drip irrigation method.
In early spring, they produce sanitary pruning of the crown. It should be cut all broken and damaged branches, as well as old shoots. The first years of growth required formative pruning to give the crown a pyramidal look. To do this, cut off the branch on the trunk, and the growing young shoots are shortened by a third. The formation of the crown "White filling" occurs in width, not in height. After the first forming haircut, 2-3 main tiers of skeletal branches should be outlined on the trunk.
If seedlings were planted on fertile land, for the first time fertilizers are applied only after 2-3 years. As supplements, complex mineral additives and rotten organic matter are used. During the intensive growth of the shoots, apple trees are fertilized with ammonium nitrate and nitroammophos or ordinary chicken droppings. Before flowering, superphosphate is introduced into the soil and then replenished with sodium humate. In the fall they fertilize with urea.
From the development of infectious diseases and pest damage, prophylactic treatment is carried out. Before the buds swell, apple trees are sprayed with fungicidal agents (for example, the drug “Skor”). Re-shoots and wood sprayed during flowering, using copper sulfate. To the spring sun, coupled with return frosts did not cause burns on the trunk, it is whitened.
For winter, the base under the tree is mulched with a thick layer of old manure. He will protect the roots from freezing.
When and how to plant?
Decide on a landing method. The young sapling is more often used, but some gardeners grow apple trees from seed. It takes more time, patience, adherence to a certain technology. The quality of the fruit may differ from the varietal.
Unlike other fruit crops (tomatoes, cucumbers), seeds of apple without prior preparation sprout with great difficulty.
- At first, fresh, ripe kernels are thoroughly washed with water, clearing from the substance that prevents germination. For three days soaked in a saucer with cool water, which is regularly changed, add growth stimulator ("Epin-extra" for example).
- Then carry out the stratification procedure (hardening). The container is filled with wet sand (or sawdust), seeds are immersed in it, cleaned in a refrigerator, cellar or cellar. Within 1.5-2 months they should be stored at a temperature of 1-5 degrees.
- As soon as the seeds are full, they are transplanted into separate containers.
There are other ways.
- From ancient times preserved easier way, used by monks while working in a garden on the territory of the Valaam Monastery. At the end of the summer, the grains were washed with water and placed immediately in open ground.
Before the onset of cold weather, the seeds had time to swell, take root, hardened in winter. Closer to April, young sprouts appeared in May.
- Sapling planted in early May. The snow is already completely gone, the night frosts will end, the air will begin to warm the earth. If the soil is still frozen, set aside the time of planting for 1-2 weeks.
- A deep, wide hole (approximately 45 to 45 cm) is dug out for planting so that the roots can be freely accommodated in it. At the bottom is an earthen mound, fertilizers are applied (peat, ash, humus). Place the seedling vertically in the center of the pit, straighten the roots and cover with soil.
- It is better to put the top layer of soil in one direction, the bottom in another when digging a hole. Fall asleep in the appropriate order.
- Pay attention to the root neck. It should be above the top layer of the earth.
Planting begins after hardening, when the seeds proklyutsya.
- Young sprouts transplanted into spacious containers (wooden box, tub, pot).
- Capacity filled with earth. It should be light, loose, well pass water, oxygen. It is better to take the land from the site where the future landing is planned. If the soil is clay, heavy, add sand and a little peat. It is recommended to make a drainage embankment and a hole at the bottom of the tank.
Work with a sapling easier. It is planted immediately in open ground.
- Give away preference for an open, sunny landing area. In the shade trees grow well, but the quality of the harvest is significantly reduced. Do not plant an apple tree in the valley.
- Distance between by others garden trees and saplings must be not less than 4 meters.
- Trees grow well on fertile or moderately fertile soils. It should be light, loose, well pass water and oxygen. If the ground is clay and heavy, add some sand to it. Pay attention to the acidity. High acidity lime extinguish.
- It is important at what level the groundwater is located. If approaching too close to the landing site, make an additional earth mound on top.
When is the apple tree transplanted?
When planting trees in open ground, transplantation is carried out only if absolutely necessary.
When grown from seed regular transplanting requiredwhich is carried out in several stages.
- After stratification. The first stage of development of the young sprout.
- A year later, the young plant is recommended to be replanted into a more spacious and wide container, not to rush to a premature landing on the site. The root is bent and taken away at a right angle.
- At the third stage, the seedling is planted in the garden.
This process will contribute to early fruiting, otherwise apples may appear after 10-15 years.
In order to grow a young sapling, have patience, properly care for the plant.
- Some gardeners advise maintaining greenhouse conditions for some time. The seed container is covered with a plastic film (or glass), which is removed only to air sprouts and moisten the soil.
- When the shoots are stretched to 1-2 cm in height, the film can be removed and gradually move the container to a well-lit, open place. First, the film is opened for an hour, 2-3 hours, a day and removed completely.
- Protect young leaves from the sun during the daytime. Create ambient lighting conditions. This is especially important if the pot is located next to the window facing south. Young leaves are still weak and can easily get sunburn.
Watering and fertilizing the soil
At the first stages, try to moisten the ground very carefully.
You can not water the sprout from the top of the watering can or bottleso as not to hurt.
Moisturize the soil only around the sprout.
Feed in the first year of life can be several times. At the same time, it is not worthwhile to get involved in nitrogenous fertilizers, since they contribute to enhanced growth of green mass and weaken the plant before winter.
How to help the shoots?
Regularly water, feed, ventilate the room, protect from drafts and temperature drops in the room, and in the daytime from the rays of the scorching sun. In dry warm weather, you can take the plant to fresh air, so that it is ventilated and breathed oxygen.
The young shoot is still weak, so he reinforcement is required - garter to the peg.
Most often several seedlings are grown from seed. When they grow up a little, you can start culling of the diashells. For further growing leave only the strongest and strongest. Pay attention to the appearance of the plant.
- For transplanting, a more spacious container is chosen so that the plant feels comfortable in it and there is a place for the development of the root system. The larger the pot, the greater the chance of forming a strong root stem.
- Take care of the transplant. Handle the plant with care to avoid damage.
- During transplantation, you can shorten the root system, but it is better to gently bend the root and bend it to the side.
Developing roots for nutrition
- Moisten the ground regularly, but beware of excess moisturewhich can harm and even cause the appearance of rot.
- Feed phosphate and potash fertilizers. Keep the plant in a well-lit room.
- Keep away from drafts and temperature drops.
- Carefully loosen the top layer of earth. This will help better outflow of moisture and breathing.
To give the crown the correct position, you can use trimming and tying.
- Unbranched young seedling pruned at height 80-90 cm. This will begin to stimulate the growth of lateral shoots and in the future you can proceed to the formation of the crown.
- If the branching began, remove shoots at the level 50-70 cm. Among the uplifting cut those that form an acute angle with the trunk. The third kidney is shortened to those that form a wide angle.
The conductor (the upper part of the trunk) is also cut. Compared to side shoots, it must remain in the lead (higher by 15-20 cm.).
- The branches of a young apple tree are tied to the lower branches, a peg or stem, giving them a horizontal position. You can put a piece of cardboardso that the rope does not crash and injure the branches. Gradually, they will begin to consolidate in the new position.
When tying up, do not rush to reject the branches of young saplings, as growth slows down, they will become skeletal. They replace the seedling will give other shoots. Tie up only long and strong branches.. Striving to give the branch a strictly horizontal position is not worth it so as not to break off. It is enough to make a slope of thirty degrees from the vertical position.
From birth to the first fruits
The first years of growth is a particularly important stage. Follow basic care guidelines.
- Watering should be moderate and regular.. In order to understand where the roots are located, you can draw a circle around the tree or drive in small pegs. Next make special grooves for the outflow of water.
- Take care of the soil. Weed, removing the roots and weeds. Loosen the ground. In dry weather, this will help to better pass water to the roots, and in rainy weather - oxygen.
- In the first year, fertilizer is applied only during planting.. In subsequent years, you can fertilize potash, phosphate fertilizers. Nitrous is not recommended yet.
- For reliable support you can tie up the seedling to the peg. This will promote proper growth, protect from strong winds. It should be tied to either three pegs, arranged in a triangle or two. In this case, the pegs are placed on the right and left side of the trunk.
- Every spring pruning. Delete all old, unnecessary (unnecessary) branches. During the first years, pruning is important for the formation of the correct crown and will become a disease prevention. When forming the crown, pay attention to how the branches are located.
- It will not be superfluous to make spring treatment with insecticides. for pest prevention.
- To help survive the first winters make mulching before the first cold weather. As mulch fit: sawdust, humus, hay, wood chips.
How to get a good harvest?
In order for the tree to start bearing fruit, you need to pollinate it. White filling refers to the summer variety.
When choosing a pollinator, preference should be given to those varieties that bloom and yield about the same time as the White bulk: Grushovka Moskovskaya, Mantet, Anis Sverdlovskiy other.
In order for the apple tree to begin to bear fruit well and not “suffer” from an oversupply of apples, it is necessary to properly thin out the rudiments of the fruit. In each bunch several apples are formed. At this time, you need to remove one from the center of each beam.. If this is not done, the quality of the harvest may decline, and the next year the tree will rest and not bring much fruit.
Properly care for the tree
Continue to take care of the tree: water, fertilize the soil, protect from diseases and pests, spend spring pruning.
- Regular spring pruning will help rejuvenate the apple tree. It is proved that even those trees that are beginning to lose their decorative qualities and bear fruit come to life again after spring pruning.
- White filling does not tolerate the winter. But, carrying out mulching before the onset of cold weather will not bring harm. To protect the bark from rodents, you can whitewash the trunk of the apple tree or impose spruce.
- Fertilization for an adult tree is recommended to be carried out in several stages.
- The first feeding comes at the end of April. Under the tree make five hundred grams of urea or six buckets of humus. The second time is fertilized with liquid humus at the beginning of flowering. The third is held during the formation of the fruit.
In 200 liters of water dilute 1 kg of nitrosafat and 20 grams of dry sodium humate. Under one tree poured 30 liters of solution. The latter is after harvesting. Fertilize with potassium sulfate and superphosphate (350 grams). In dry weather, fertilizers are diluted in water.
Growing apple trees is a long and laborious process. No matter which way you choose - plant a seed or purchase a ready seedling. The most important thing is to give a lot of energy, time, devoting oneself to the care and care of a young plant. Only because of this, it is possible to grow a healthy, strong apple tree that will produce a bountiful harvest annually.
Characteristics of the apple tree "White filling"
This is a very common type of early ripening.The tree is characterized by a beautiful pyramidal or round crown of small size and moderate frost resistance.
The variety is characterized by moderate endurance to scab leaves and fruits, other diseases and pests. Young saplings of apple trees "White filling" begin fructification much earlier, annually bringing a plentiful crop.
The advantage of the breed, many gardeners consider early flowering and bud resistance to spring frosts or cold weather, as well as the ability to enter the fruiting phase for the 3-4th year. They also note the taste qualities of apples, abundant yield, in some cases reaching up to 200 kg from a single tree. Недостатком называют одновременное созревание всех яблок, их плохую транспортабельность.
Some gardeners have identified the “White Beer” apple-tree with the description of the variety “Papirovka”, which causes particular indignation among breeders. This is a completely different breed of apple trees. They have similar heavily pubescent shoots of medium brown-olive color. Vegetative buds flat flat shape, small, grayish color.
Leaves elliptical, sometimes egg-like, medium-sized, not concave, gray-green shade with a strong hairiness on the inside. The stem is thick and not short. Flowers large white and pink. Fruits are light yellow with a pleasant aroma, white tender and juicy crumb. But still there is a difference. The apple tree “White filling”, in contrast to “Papirovka”, begins to ripen in the period from the middle of July. Her apples are sweeter in taste, not so juicy and distinguished by roundness. The ripe "Paping" appears only 2-3 weeks after the "White filling."
When apples perespevat, their flesh becomes mealy, mushy. The skin is thin, without a top coat. When you hit the fruit visible dark spots. therefore they are practically not suitable for storage. They are consumed raw or sent for processing.
Planting apple seedlings "White filling"
The right choice of seedlings is the key to successful cultivation of the apple tree. The development of the tree during the first decade depends on how strong and healthy it is. But if you add some wise advice on planting and caring for the crop to the high-quality planting material of the “Bely Pouring” apple trees of the variety, a quick and abundant fruiting is guaranteed. We will understand in more detail the nuances of planting apple trees "White filling."
How to choose the seedlingsSelection of seedlings is better to make in the nurseries and garden centers. There you can visually see the quality of the tree and also consult with experts.
When you will be dug out the specified instance, and its roots will be treated with a special talker for successful transportation.
When choosing pay attention to the roots. They must have a strong healthy appearance, well developed whole branches, without mechanical abrasions and cuts, as well as without sagging and thickening. Look for any putrid damage on them, moldy areas. Scrape the spine with your fingernail - fresh white wood that appeared on the wound site indicates the viability of the seedling.
Otherwise, brown spots say about the dryness of the root system. This material is not worth taking. Suitable for planting an apple tree, usually with a height of not less than 1.5 m, with a healthy root neck, a straight trunk and five skeletal branches. On suitable specimens can not be stripped bark and other damage of any nature.
When planting material is selected, the question arises about the preparation for its transportation. To do this, wrap the roots with a damp cloth and carefully place them in a large plastic bag. To this end, it is possible to prepare a very wet substrate. The branches are slightly tied up. In cases where you plan to plant in a few days or weeks so that the root system does not hurt, the tree should be prikopat or leave the seedling in a bag with wet soil.
Optimum landing times and site selection
Spring rooting guarantees young saplings the formation of powerful rhizomes and the development of healthy, strong branches. Such an apple tree will have time to adapt to the winter and survive it safely.Landing should be in the period from late April to early May. The main thing is that the earth should move away from winter, dry enough and be well warmed. The root system of seedlings before planting should be left for 24 hours in the water. And during planting water, while the ground will absorb moisture.
Spring planting is especially recommended for young plants whose age has not reached two years. More mature specimens root in the fall at the beginning of October.
Apple trees do not take root everywhere, so the choice of a site for planting plays a significant role. It should be borne in mind that the "White filling" does not like the shadow, the southern sun, strong winds and drafts. The tree will develop poorly in cramped. In the garden, the distance between the trees should be about 1.5-2 m. The location of groundwater at 2 m.
Ideal fruit crops enriched with useful substances not sour black soil. Do not plant on wetlands or rocky areas - the tree will suffer and hurt. Also avoid elevations, as the tree loves moderate moisture.
Stepwise landing process
Four weeks before planting the apple seedlings begin preparatory work. They are carried out in order to facilitate the rooting process, creating in the ground the necessary microflora.
To this end, dig a hole with a diameter of 1 m and 70 cm deep. It is important in the process of preparing the top layer of fertile soil to lay in one direction, and the bottom - depleted - in another. Do not neglect this advice, because in the future the landing will be done with the earth from the first pile. In the middle of the groove, drive in a small peg; preburn it with the lower edge to prevent putrefying infections. At the bottom of the pit lay claydite or broken brick.
Then mix the compost, peat and humus with a fertile layer of soil (from the first pile) and fill the indentation with the substrate. Some experts advise doing this to the very top, explaining that in the future when the soil subsides the apple tree will not be in the funnel. After this work, the pit is covered with a film and left for a month.
After the specified time, you can plan a landing. This process can be divided into several steps:
- First inspect the planting material. The appearance of brown edges on slices of the root tips is an alarm signal. They need to be removed before live wood. Be sure to check for any putrid lesions. If the rhizomes are not dipped into a clay talker, do it now to avoid drying out.
- A seedling with healthy and processed roots can be lowered into the prepared recess. In this case, the peg should be located on the south side of the trunk, for the prevention of spring burns of the bark.
- Carefully flatten the roots and water the apple tree until the soil absorbs the water.
- Then powder the soil with fertile soil and thoroughly tamp. At the same time, thoroughly shake the trunk so that the voids formed between the roots will be covered with earth and the tree will not wither. Make sure that the place of transition of the trunk to the root (root neck) is located about 5 cm above the ground. If you bury it, the apple tree will bear bad fruit, if it is strongly elevated, it dries. Better sprinkle this point with a small mound of soil. This trick will allow water to flow when watered.
- Tie the barrel to the peg. This will allow the trunk to develop in the right direction and protect the roots from strong loosening due to wind gusts.
- At the end, grumble the circle to avoid moisture evaporating. In order to avoid contamination of roots with germs from degradable materials, retreat 15 cm from the trunk.
Tips for caring for the apple "White filling"
Apple trees "White filling" in the care does not differ from other varieties. These decorative and prolific trees do not create troubles and delight their owners with the ability to adapt to any climatic conditions.
It is possible to influence the quantity and quality of fruits by picking the right pollinators. The variety itself is not able to pollinate.If there are no other apple trees next to it, few fruits will be tied up, and their sizes will disappoint. Experts say that with a good neighborhood increases the yield, even on self-bearing trees. Gardeners on the forums share their experience that for the "White Pouring" the sort of apple pollinator does not really matter. The main thing that the trees were also early maturing (summer varieties). But botanists, using the method of calculating the percentage of the resulting ovary on flowering plants, calculated that for this variety they are very suitable as neighbors Antonovka, Medunitsa, Ottawa, Grushovka Moskovskaya, Aromat de Vares, and Mantet.
Prevention and protection against pests and diseases
In case of violations of the elementary rules of agrotechnology, the tree becomes sensitive to attacks of pests, in particular, green aphids, moths, as well as diseases from scab, powdery mildew and others.
For prevention, it is important to carry out a special whitewashing of the bark and deep digging of tree trunks every autumn. Also, you should not leave fallen leaves in an uncleaned garden. In it harmful insects hide for the winter, the laid eggs winter.
If the apple tree is bad or over-watered, do not fertilize with minerals, a pathogen may appear in a poor-quality substrate cytosporosisthat eventually appears dark spots on the bark. Branches die off on an infected tree, and as a result, the trunk completely dries out. Treatment in the later stages is not effective, it should begin immediately with the manifestation of the disease.The first treatment is carried out with a solution of the drug "Chom" (40 g per 10 liters of water) in early spring.
The second is when the apple trees bloom using a mixture of 50 g of copper sulphate and 10 liters of water. Then, after a couple of weeks, they are re-disinfected with “Home”.
The appearance of fungi provokes the development powdery mildewthat manifests itself on all fruitful parts of the apple tree with a whitish bloom. Some newcomers perceive it as dust and do not rush to take action. In such cases, the spots become brown in color with a grainy base, and soon black grains form on them. On the infected plant leaves fall and there is no ovary.
In order to prevent the progression of fungi, experienced gardeners disinfect trees every spring before blooming of buds with copper sulphate or “Skor” preparation solution, and when they bloom, repeat treatment with copper oxychloride solution. In the autumn, the crown is re-sprayed with blue vitriol.
This substance is effective in combating scabresulting from the activity of fungi. On the "White filling" it appears brown spots on the leaves, which eventually peel off, cracks and gray-black dots on the apples. When infecting, it is important to clean the tree from damaged leaves, branches and fruits (they are burned away from the garden). As an alternative to copper sulphate, in the spring, after foliage blooming, you can use Topaz, and after flowering, you can disinfect with Home.In order not to bring the trees in the garden to the resuscitation measures, every autumn, remove the fallen leaves, monitor the humidity and timely feeding. This is the best prevention.
Regularity and abundance of irrigation
Apple White "pouring" love moisture. Consequently, the number of waterings in proportion to the juiciness of the fruit. But the main thing - do not pour the roots, because an excess of water will entail rotting and mold on the roots. In the garden, trees can be sprinkled, drip, ground or surface irrigation. All of these methods are effective if they are not in the heat.
The main thing is to properly organize the location of the hose and the dosage of water. Watering is better in the evening, pouring 2 buckets of water under each annual tree. The rate is doubled depending on the age of the culture. For example, biennial apple trees need 4 buckets of water, etc. Trees that are more than five years old are watered at the rate of 50-100 l / sq. m, as well as those instances that began to bear fruit.
After hibernation, the apple trees are watered for the first time before the buds have blossomed. Seedlings require special attention in the first five years of life. They are recommended to water every week. And adult apple trees re-moisturize during fruit set.
Watch the weather, because the heat drains the force out of the tree, and greenfinchs begin to crumble. A few weeks before harvesting, arrange for a third watering. In order to protect the tree from freezing in winter, the last soil moistening is carried out, under the condition of warm weather, in October.Never water the apple trees during fruit ripening and after harvesting. The vegetation period is not over yet, and the flow of moisture contributes to the appearance of tops and young shoots, which are completely unsuitable for winter. After such an injury, a frozen tree may not survive.
Weeding and loosening the soil
These apple needs must be taken into account with every watering. Regardless of the method of moistening, complete the procedure by loosening and mulching pristvolny circles. Loose substrate facilitates aeration of the suction areas of the root system. And the mulch does not allow moisture to evaporate, thereby preventing the formation of a dry peel.
Do not allow weeds to grow around the holes; they suck out useful substances from the soil, preventing them from eating fruit crops. In addition, the grass contributes to the drying of the soil in the garden. Time weeding, then the seeds will not give new shoots.
It is necessary to start fertilizing the trees of the “White Filling” with the beginning of the vegetative period, when young shoots develop. In the spring, mature trees are watered with a solution of ammonium nitrate and nitroammofoski or pereprepyu manure. Substances containing nitrogen contribute to the intensive development of biomass. If you are afraid of chemicals, you can safely replace them with chicken manure. In this case, the fertilizer is prepared from 50 parts of water and 1 part of manure. Feeding is repeated 3 times throughout the spring.For full development, feed the tree at the end of March with a mixture of urea in the proportion of 2 tbsp. l 10 liters of water.
Then repeat the fertilizer with a mixture of superphosphate before flowering. When the buds ottsvetut, feed the apple tree with a solution of nitrophoska and fertilizer "Sodium HUMATE."
Recommended for 1 square. m to make about 5-7 kg of organic, 60 g of superphosphate or 40 g of potash. The prepared mixture is brought not under the trunk, but into the previously prepared peripheral wells. They can be replaced by half-meter holes.
After the procedure, the soil is leveled, sealing up all the grooves.
For apple trees growing on acidic soils, it will be useful to add 200 grams of lime or chalk, dolomite flour or ordinary old plaster once every 4 years. This will contribute to the neutralization of the soil.
Cropping and crown formation
The first pruning of the White Filling apple trees is carried out even before planting, to form a compact crown. In the future, every spring cleaned sick, old and damaged shoots. And in the fall they are mowing down weakened and not adapted for wintering.
You can start work at the beginning of spring, when the movement of juice has not yet begun. With a disinfected pruner, carefully remove the top of the young tree trunk, leaving 80 cm of height, and cut the side shoots. This trick helps to strengthen the roots.Eliminate old specimens from frozen or diseased parts, if necessary, thin the crown so that the branches do not obscure each other. Also cut branches tilted to the ground. At the end of pruning, cover up all cuts with garden pitch, and wrap polyethylene over large areas until the tree is restored.
After a proper pruning, the crown of the apple tree will branch out, not up. It will have clearly expressed 2-3 even tiers, the lower branches of which are much longer than the upper ones. Some gardeners recommend heavy objects to be tied to lower skeletal shoots in the first years of their life in order for them to acquire a sprawling shape. There is an opinion that the quantity and quality of the crop depends on it. Branches that are heavily worn under the weight of the fruit, it is better to back up, putting a small rubber pads under the edge of the support.
Preparing for the winter
Apple Bely Pouring in winter is often attacked by rodents, severely damaging the bark. To protect miniature compact trees from these attacks, gardeners wrap trunks two feet from the ground. Alternatively, burlap or dense mesh, which is backed with pine needles, will do. It is possible to replace these structures with liquid products prepared from lard and other substances that are unpleasant for hares.
Particularly protected is young trees - with damaged bark, they are unlikely to survive the winter. And in order to protect the roots from frost, up to five years of age for the winter mulch near-tree trunks with manure. In the snow-free seasons, it is important to roll up the trunks of such specimens at the level of 15-20 cm.
Harvesting and storage
Simultaneous ripeness of all the fruits on the tree "White Pour" - perhaps the only significant "minus" of the variety. Ripe apples have a very pleasant taste and are quite suitable for consumption in raw form. But with a bountiful harvest, they need urgent processing, as they are deprived of keeping quality. Especially if novice gardeners water the trees during the harvest. As a result, the apples crack and are absolutely unsuitable for transportation. Also, even the most minor blows and abrasions turn into brown spots. In order to avoid this, it is recommended that “White pouring” be carefully removed from the tree. The apples of this sort of housewife prepare very tasty jams, jam, marmalade and other homemade sweets for the winter.
Characteristics and characteristics of the variety
In different regions of Russia, the variety has different names. For example, it is often called Bel, Pudovschina and Dolgostebelka. It matures one of the first.
Description of the apple tree White filling:
- The height of an adult tree can reach 4-5 meters (this is the average height).
- The crown of the tree has a wide pyramidal shape, but in the process of growth the apple tree acquires a more rounded shape.
- The color of the bark is light gray. Fruits, as a rule, are concentrated on annuli.
- Яблоня обильно укрыта листьями, которые имеют яйцевидную или эллиптическую форму, величина средняя. Листья на верхней части дерева, в отличие от нижней, менее опушенные и это придает им матовый оттенок. Apple leaf stalks are most often elongated and palely colored.
- The trees form large flowers of white or pink color, exuding a pleasant aroma. Special or additional pollinator is not required. The level of anthers is less or the same as the level of pistils.
- Fruits are liquid, ravnobokie, the correct kolonovidny form, are narrowed to a cup. The color is greenish white. Sometimes a small blush is formed on the side.
- In the process of tree growth, the fruits on it begin to rapidly grow smaller. The weight of each apple can vary from 120 to 150 g.
- Until the removal of the fruit keeps a whitish plaque. Under the delicate thin skin, green or white dots are visible.
- The taste is sweet and sour, but without an excess of acid, the flavor is incredible. The flesh is loose, coarse-grained, but tender. When overripe, the consistency of the fruit becomes mealy, like cotton wool.
- Indicators of frost resistance are excellent.
White Apple Pouring
Chemical composition and caloric content of fruits:
- ascorbic acid (vitamin C) - 22mg / 100g,
- pectin compounds - 10%,
- the total number of sugars is 9%.
Note! Caloric value of the product is 46.73 Kcal per 100 g.
Planting young seedlings
The best time for planting young saplings is the beginning of May. It is recommended to plant a tree away from buildings that create shade. It is necessary that nearby there were no already mature trees with a strong root system that would absorb all the nutrients and moisture. The intervals between the crowns of trees must be at least 4 meters.
Culture grows on any land, but medium and fertile soils will most favorably affect the growth and development of the tree. The clay soil is also to the liking of the White filling.
It is necessary to plant a seedling in a hole of 45 x 45 cm in size. It is necessary to distribute a bucket of humus evenly along the bottom. A few centimeters of soil should be poured over the organic fertilizer. The seedling is carefully placed in the center of the embankment, and the root system is laid out so that it spreads evenly along the slope.
Holding the young tree in this position, the pit needs to be filled with soil and rammed a little.
Important! The root neck should be located above the ground.
After planting, the plant must be watered abundantly - at least 10–20 liters of warm water should fall on each tree.
The plant is unpretentious in the care. Anyone who knows the general rules of supervision for apple orchards, will understand quickly and easily.
Consider the basic rules of agricultural engineering:
- Regular watering. Do not pour plenty of culture. In a circle, you can drive pegs that mark the boundaries. Near them you can dig up the grooves that create drainage.
- Weeding and regular loosening of the soil. Those actions that will provide the root system with oxygen, moisture and nutrients.
- Fertilizer should be applied to the soil during planting. For feeding use potash and / or phosphate fertilizers. The second time such procedure is carried out only in a year. Then it is fed with minerals every season, without much fanaticism. An adult tree is fertilized according to another schedule (more on this below).
- In the spring, be sure to cut off damaged, dry and old branches. It is necessary for the prevention of disease and giving the crown the correct form. At this time, it is recommended to irrigate the tree with insecticides.
- In the autumn, before the onset of frost, the soil around the trees is mulched with sawdust, branches, etc.
- Sometimes apples are formed on the trees very much. But rejoice gardener is not worth it - it contributes to the irregular fruiting and rapid depletion of the tree. Therefore, it is important to thin out the ovaries of the fruit, removing the central germ from each bundle.
- To protect the tree from the attacks of rodents, you can use special paint and whitewash. An alternative way is to wrap with a fir grove.
An adult fruiting apple tree should be fertilized in stages:
- The first top dressing (middle of spring) is 0.5 kg of urea or 6 buckets of rotted humus.
- The second top dressing (before flowering) is to add liquid humus.
- The third dressing should be carried out before the formation of the fruit. A solution of nitrophosphate and sodium humate is introduced into the soil near the tree.
- After harvesting, the trees are fed with superphosphate and potash fertilizers, spreading them with water.
Advantages and disadvantages
Apple White Beverage has a number of advantages and therefore is in demand among ordinary gardeners.
Consider the main advantages:
- harvest can be collected in mid-July, the variety belongs to the early ripening,
- the abundance of fruiting (under optimal growing conditions and compliance with the rules of agricultural technology from one tree can collect up to 200 kg of crop),
- Excellent frost resistance at which trees easily tolerate harsh cold
- for 3-4 years of life the plant is already beginning to bear fruit,
- universal use of fruits: they can be eaten fresh, as well as prepare compotes, add to pastries and make preparations for the winter. There are many recipes for their preparation.
Despite the large number of advantages, do not forget about the disadvantages. Unfortunately, we cannot do without them. This list includes:
- short period of storage of fruits,
- the inability to transport them over long distances,
- frequency of fruiting,
- the rapid maturation of all fruits at the same time.
The apple tree of surprisingly interesting variety Bely pouring is an unpretentious plant that provides the gardener with tasty and fragrant fruits, which contain a shock concentration of useful properties. Considering that it is not too difficult to care for her, even beginning gardeners can plant her in their summer cottage, obtaining excellent yields.
The fruits of even a young tree will have a large size and weight of about 150 grams. Apples have a conical shape and distinct ribs. Ripe fruits are distinguished by a characteristic light yellow color, and during ripening they may have a light white bloom. White pulp is soft and sweet, seed box is filled with fragrant juice.
The peculiarity of this variety is its rapid and active growth. The tree begins to bear fruit in the third year of life. Crop ripening occurs in mid-July.
It should be remembered that the stored harvest can be stored no more than a month. Because of their softness, such apples hardly tolerate transportation.
That is why it is recommended immediately after harvest to recycle it for jam, compote or jam.
Advantages of a grade white filling
From the advantages of the white filling variety, the following can be noted:
- Ripening fruits in the middle of summer,
- Apple trees can tolerate cold,
- Early onset of fruiting
- Maximum yield.
White jam jam
It is necessary to note the versatility of this variety. Harvested apples have great taste, so you can eat them fresh or make different jams of them.
At the same time, it is necessary to remember the existing shortcomings:
- Poor crop transportability,
- The rapid maturation of the entire crop,
- Short storage period
- The frequency of fruiting.
The whole crop ripens at the same time, so the summer resident and gardener may have a problem with how to use a large number of harvested apples.
It should also be noted that the seasons with abundant fruiting alternate with the years when the tree does not bear fruit at all.
In part, a similar problem can be solved by planting several trees at the dacha at once, the fruiting cycles of which should differ by 1 year.
Useful properties of this variety
Useful properties of a grade white filling directly proceed from its description. It should be noted the rich composition of apples of this variety:
- Ripe fruits contain large amounts of vitamin C. This vitamin enhances the protective functions of the body and strengthens the immune system.
- Insoluble fiber in the pulp of apples helps to remove cholesterol from the body. This in turn improves the functioning of the heart and vascular system.
- Pectins contained in apples cleanse the liver, fight toxins and improve the functioning of internal organs.
- The peel of apples contains a large amount of antioxidants, which are excellent prevention against cancer.
Selection of seedlings
Choosing seedlings for planting, it is necessary to give preference to quality processes that are grown on gardening farms. Having picked up a high-quality one-year-old sapling, you will be able to guarantee its full survival, and the tree itself will be distinguished by active growth and will quickly begin to bear fruit.
Seedlings have a good survival rate, but only if they choose the right time for planting. It is best to carry out this work in the middle of autumn. Having landed white in 3-4 weeks before the onset of cold weather, you will allow the seedling to take root, which will be the key to active growth of the tree in the spring.
As mentioned above, the trees of this variety are distinguished by the earliest and most abundant fruiting. Already in the third year, the first tasty apples appear on the tree. And you can get a full harvest in the fourth year of cultivation. An adult tree can bring about 100 kilograms of ripe fruit per season. Apples ripen at the same time and, when ripe, fall to the ground.
Try not to allow long-term ripe apples on the ground, as this will always lead to damage to the crop. It is best to pick apples before they fall to the ground. This will protect them from mechanical damage, which in turn reduces the shelf life of the fruit.
White filling apples are very popular among summer residents and gardeners. This tree is abundantly fruiting, and the harvest has excellent taste. The proposed description of the cultivation technology will allow you to get a great harvest. This garden culture is unpretentious in care, so white apples are poured recommended for beginners and gardeners.