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WHEN BETTER CUT?
Often inexperienced gardeners cannot determine at what time pruning is most effective - in spring or autumn? Our experts believe that this procedure is best done in the spring, when it is already warmer, but the tree is still asleep. It is better to have time to prune before the temperature of the air is much higher than zero, until the active sap flow has begun.
The optimal time for pruning trees in spring: the end of February - mid-March. Pruning done at this time will help maintain the health of the plant, its beauty and strength, improve the productivity and quality of the crop. It predetermines the branches in advance, on which large fruits with bright color will ripen.
For this procedure, it is best to choose a clear, calm day. Indeed, at such a time pruning trees in the spring and most pleasant to work, and the tree creates good conditions for better healing of wounds. We remind you that all the incisions made must necessarily be treated with a special oil paint or garden pitch. After all, the healing of wounds in representatives of the fauna is an extremely complex biological process in which cambium cells take part, which form a callus ring. And with the use of the above materials, we protect the wound, do not allow it to dry and crack.
Basic rules for pruning trees in spring:
• Do not cut at temperatures below -10 C.
• Use clean and sharp tools.
• Delete on a mandatory basis every dead and diseased branch.
• Disinfect the instrument that you used when cutting diseased branches in a plant. Otherwise there is a risk of infection healthy.
• Shape the crown so that the branches grow from the trunk at the right angle. It is 45-60 degrees.
• Remove branches, rubbing against each other, thickening the crown and growing inside the crown.
• Regularly check the condition of the trunk of a tree and heal wounds in time.
• Observe how the plant responds to the pruning procedure and, based on the findings, improve the technique in this matter.
By adhering to these basic rules, you will not harm the tree, trim it correctly and help the plant grow and develop properly.
You can learn even more useful information, as well as ask questions to Russia's top specialists in March at the All-Russian Open Internet Marathon "Garden from A to Z - Spring-2015"
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Spring pruning of fruit trees
Amateur gardeners often have a question: when to prune fruit trees in spring, is it possible after the start of sap flow? It all depends on the condition of your garden. Trunk split, branches broke under the weight of snow? Of course, pruning is inevitable. When there is nothing like this, then you should not injure the trees. After all, pruning is not an end in itself. If you build trees by the rules, you only need a minimal corrective operation, without which you can do without.
Pruning fruit trees is an important factor for a healthy and fruitful garden. And do it skillfully. First of all, the shoots should be removed:
- which depart from the barrel at an acute angle
- directed to the center of the crown,
- which do not bear fruit (top).
There are several rules that professional gardeners always adhere to:
You can begin to form the crown of a young tree in the second year of its life and continue for several years. Fruits on apples, pears appear on perennial shoots, and plums, cherries bear fruit the next year after planting. Knowing this, spring pruning of fruit trees can be done without much damage to the future harvest. Span-less and sparse-tiered crown forming systems are common. The latter is ideal for cherries, plums, cherry plums. The basis of such a crown - the trunk and up to a dozen side branches, which grow from the trunk in tiers at a distance of up to twenty centimeters from each other.
And so, how to properly prune fruit trees in the spring and form a crown? Do as follows:
- The guide is the central shoot, cut off approximately 80 centimeters from the base. The main thing: on the conductor should remain up to a dozen kidneys. From them will go new shoots, side branches. This is the first tier.
- Next year, remove the branches damaged during the winter, choose three or four strong ones. Delete the rest. This is the second tier.
- Therefore, the same principle form the third tier for the fourth year.
- The tree has reached four meters in height (undersized fruit trees - maximum), remove the conductor above the upper branch. Thus, stop the growth, fully form the crown of the tree.
Pruning trees should be regularly: once a year or in spring and autumn. At any time, as necessary, produce sanitary or corrective pruning.
Pruning fruit trees in the spring of its time - the end of winter or early spring. This is especially important for apricot, cherry, peach, cherry plum. In the summer, they do pruning only in order to remove the tops and twigs that contribute to the excessive density of the crown.
Description: a - shortening of shoots in the first year, b, c - molding pruning of crown shoots along a given contour, d - sanitary pruning (removing dry branches), d - pruning and thinning in order to improve aeration (before and after), e - rejuvenation old trees.
Pruning adult fruit trees
Your garden is already bearing fruit. But he, as well as young trees, requires care and removal of dried or diseased branches. How to prune fruit trees in spring?
Thickened crown of the fruit tree should be thinned. After five years, the conductor is removed. This will limit the growth up. Delete the branch in whole or in part. Partial removal contributes to the growth of the branch, which is located nearby. It is also necessary to cut off diseased, dried branches - the illumination of the crown is improved, the fruits are distributed evenly.
Pruning is best done when the tree is at rest until sap flow has begun.
If the crown is pyramid (pear - the branches grow up), the growing branches should be lowered down: leave those that are directed down, and those that are up are cut. In other fruit trees, the branches are directed downwards - they need to be lifted: remove the downward ones.
To rejuvenate the tree, you will need to cut the upper part of the trunk and thin the crown. To do this, remove the old, going inside the crown, branches that are intertwined. A very dense crown, in order not to injure the plant badly, should not be thinned overnight, stretch the operation for two or three years.
Pear, Cherry, Apple Tree Trimming Schemes
Pruning fruit trees in spring scheme for pears:
- In winter, the branches freeze slightly and whirls appear. They are completely removed or pruned.
- If you cut it hard, it will weaken the tree, the fruits will appear much later than expected. Better to do a moderate pruning.
- Annual branches are useful to shorten slightly. This will only strengthen them.
For cherry, sweet cherry:
- In the young trees, five to seven strong branches are left, "looking" in different directions. The distance between them is up to 10 centimeters.
- All weak branches are removed.
- The conductor should be 20 centimeters longer than the rest.
- Cherry and sweet cherry are pruned only in spring.
- Before you start pruning, you need to clear the trunk, the main branches of the shoots.
- It will rejuvenate the old plant, increase the yield, remove a third of the branches and processes - the main thing is not to overdo it.
- To carry out pruning need for several years.
A few tips from experienced gardeners
While working in your garden, consider the experience of other gardeners and do not forget:
- Removing branches, do not leave hemp, cut off near the trunk.
- A correctly made cut leaves a trace of a neatly overgrown “ring”.
- When removing thick branches, first make a cut from the bottom, and then from the top. Thus, the crust will remain intact if the branch falls.
- Removed the escape wrong, there is damage - clean, process a cut of bars.
- With pruning frozen trees it is better to wait until next spring.
- It is impossible to seal the hollows, it is impossible to drill drainage holes.
- If there is a danger of breaking the branches under the weight of the fruit, do not put props. It is better to partially tear off the fruit. Otherwise, the plant will get used and will not be able to hold branches on its own.
How to cut the plant and not damage, learn by viewing the video at the end of the article.
Tips from experienced gardeners
- When pruning, secateurs need to be kept narrow to the branch.
- Want to form a lush young tree crown, shorten the conductor by провод.
- There should be only one explorer. There are competitors - eliminate.
A year after planting, shorten the stem of the plant by 20 centimeters and branches to 7 centimeters. Please note: the branches below should be longer.
When it is necessary to prune the crown of fruit trees
For each of the species and age of fruit trees there is its own - the most suitable period for pruning. The ranges of the procedure can be divided into several.
- Autumn and Winter. Pruning is done directly after the complete abscission of the leaf cover and the end of the movement of the tree sap. This period is also called rest time. On the one hand, it is believed that this is the most favorable time for pruning trees. But on the other hand, it was during this period that, due to the lack of movement of tree sap, it is more difficult to heal the cut areas. In addition, by pruning in low-temperature conditions, it is possible to freeze the shoots in this way, which will lead to their damage and impaired fruiting function.
- Spring-summer. It starts from the moment of appearance of the first movement of the tree sap - this is the so-called vegetative period, and lasts until the fruit is picked. This is the right time for grafting and pruning fruit trees. Poor results can be corrected before the cold season.
In addition to seasonal landmarks, before embarking on pruning fruit trees, you should consider a number of equally important factors, such as:
- plot location
- wind speed,
- temperature below 0 °
Tools for pruning fruit trees
Fundamental to the period of pruning trees are not only seasonal and weather conditions, but also the quality of the tools. Requirements for them are quite simple, they should be as sharp, clean and convenient to use as possible. What may be needed for pruning.
- Pruner. Refers to a variety of garden shears. In addition to the main requirement - sharpness of the blades, the tool should be easy and convenient to use, as it usually takes a long time to trim a single tree. It is important to pay attention to the action of the ratchet mechanism, it will depend on it, with what force you have to press the handle. In addition, the blades should have a small gap, otherwise the young shoots will get stuck in them, which will cause additional work.
- Garden saw. Blades should have a good sharpening and have a shape, narrowed to the end of the blade. Gaps between the teeth should have shallow cavities for the accumulation of sawdust material. Construction saws are not suitable for trimming fruit trees, as they can create additional damage to the trunk.
- Extended pruner. It differs from the manual version by the presence of a long handle. This form is perfect for cutting off processes that are slightly taller than a man, without using additional means in the form of a ladder or ladder. There are options with a telescopic tube, making it possible to adjust the height of the cut.
In the work of pruning trees may need additional tools.
- Chainsaw will accelerate the process of cutting massive trunks, especially for age trees.
- Ladder or stepladder will form the crown of the fruit tree.
- OverallsSupplemented with protective gloves, eliminates unnecessary injury during operation.
- Glasses will be needed in moments of cutting, to protect the eyes from sawdust and small slivers.
Technique of forming and trimming fruit trees
From a technical point of view, there are three types of pruning trees.
- "On the kidney." This method of pruning allows you to set the most correct direction of growth of the branch. As a rule, only young shoots are cut in a similar way by cutting over the selected bud. During the procedure, the pruning blade should be directed towards the branch.
Important: the cutting angle should be as close to 45 ° as possible so that the kidney is not “trimmed”. In addition, it is necessary to avoid an unnecessarily sharp cut, in which case the left kidney will lack nutrients. A too long residual process can dry out and in the future it will have to be completely cut down, which will disrupt the crown formation process.
- "On the ring." Such pruning is done only in order to completely remove one or several branches. The reason may be a violation of the penetration of light into the crown or the wrong direction of the branches. In the latter case, the shoots take away part of the nutrients that can be distributed among the more promising in terms of yield, branches. If the shoot is relatively young and its thickness allows, then pruning is done with shears, otherwise a garden saw is used.
Note: there are a number of nuances, which should not be forgotten, when cutting the branch “to the ring”. You can not leave an unnecessarily long process and pruning level with the bark. Cutting along the outer edge of the ring, which is formed by the influx of bark at the junction of the shoot with the trunk, is considered correct.
- "On the side branch." This type of pruning is the least traumatic for fruit trees and retains most of their viable functions. Its direct purpose is to change the direction of growth from one shoot to another. There is a complete pruning of incapable branches, so that all the main functions take over the side branches, gradually replacing the main ones.
Types of pruning fruit trees
In addition to the various technological aspects of pruning, there are also types of this process that determine the further development of the fruit tree and its yield:
- Formative. All actions are aimed at designing a future crown, as a result, the necessary thickness and shape should be formed. The best time for such pruning is February, the beginning of March. As a result, during the active movement of the sap, which begins at the end of March, the fruit tree will be as fruitful as possible. Late formative pruning will cause a delay in plant development or the lack of a crop per se.
Important: correctly decorated skeletal (guiding) branches, in the process of the entire growth and development of the plant will serve as a reliable framework, resistant to any loads, which will allow to withstand even the heaviest crop.
- Regulatory Suitable for an actively developing tree that needs minimal adjustment. Crown illumination and density of young shoots should be maintained in proper condition. Potentially successful period: February-April or August-September. In any of these periods, the fresh cut is quickly tightened and does not release woody sap.
- Rejuvenating view intended for old trees. The main goal is the restoration of active fruiting. Trimming time: early spring and late autumn. This pruning is effective to stimulate the growth of new shoots and the resumption of the vitality of the withering tree. Even if an “adult” tree gives a good harvest, it still needs rejuvenating pruning from time to time, which awakens the adventitious buds.
- Recovery. It is suitable even for beginners in the issue of pruning trees, as it consists in the elimination of dried and damaged branches. Even such minor actions will lead to the renewal of the crown of the tree and the revitalization of its growth and fruiting.
- Sanitary. The task of this type of pruning is to revitalize and rehabilitate the fruit tree, which has been damaged by various external factors. A similar procedure can be carried out perfectly at any time of the year, with the exception of active frosts. Shoots infected with parasites, damaged or broken are removed at the root, after which you need to carefully process the tool and dispose of the wood.
Pruning fruit trees in spring
- Весна является наиболее продуктивным и удачным сезоном года для обрезки плодовых деревьев. Важно выждать период окончательной смены температур после зимы, чтобы прошли последние заморозки. Производить обрезку необходимо строго до момента набухания первых почек. Идеальной будет сухая погода с температурой выше 0°. Pruning fruit trees should be done in the following sequence:
- Pruning begins with the trees older in age. After all, they are the main fructifying composition. And only after that you can prune the young seedlings. The reason lies in the different periods of the awakening of the kidneys.
- If on the site grow apple trees, you need to start with them. After all, this tree is the most resistant to frost, and if the temperature drops again, after pruning, this tree will not suffer, unlike the others. But pear and cherry is better to cut closer to May.
- Regarding shoots, pruning begins with the least promising. What does it mean? Dry or damaged by frost and insects that intersect with others are shoots that interfere with the normal functioning of the crown.
- Large fruit branches are cut only option: "on the ring." The cut must be covered with a special solution or wet clay - so it will be delayed faster and will not harm the whole tree.
Summer pruning of trees
The process of pruning fruit trees is quite possible to carry out in the summer. The main purpose of this procedure is only a slight adjustment concerning the branches damaged by frost, if they were not detected in early spring. Indeed, in the period of active flowering is much easier to identify the shortcomings.
In addition to stripping incapable shoots, a number of activities can be carried out during this period.
- Pinning (clothespin) - the process of cutting off the upper part of the branch. The young appendix is easily cut by clippers or shears.
- Masking is an adjustment option that is performed when the buds give young shoots and it is enough to break them out. Reception is quite similar to standard pruning, the only difference is that clipping occurs without the intervention of garden tools. Surprisingly, it is this option that favorably affects tightening the cliff, it is faster and less painful.
Pruning fruit trees in autumn
- The most favorable period for carrying out the procedure of pruning fruit trees is, of course, autumn. Thanks to her, the tree is prepared for the cold temperatures. The main goal of the autumn pruning is sanitization, that is, the removal of excessive dry, painful and damaged shoots. Due to such actions, tree pests and microorganisms will not be able to move to the healthy part of the fruit tree.
- Among other things, the autumn pruning of trees allows you to create the most effective conditions for ventilation and lighting of the crown. And the distribution of tree sap on healthy branches, will increase the yield for next year.
Note: before the onset of cold weather, all large sections should be treated with a special protective composition, this will favorably affect the speedy healing and preparation for low temperatures. Winter pruning of fruit trees is not recommended.
Fruit Tree Pruning Schemes
Knowing all the principles and types of pruning fruit trees is still difficult to imagine how to start the procedure, especially for beginners in the field of gardening. An approximate plan for pruning a tree can come to the aid of a non-expert in this matter.
- First of all, it is worth paying attention to the apical shoots - removing the thin forks of the branches in the form of “crow's feet”.
- Next, you should get rid of the crossing of the branches, for this it is necessary to cut off the shoots directed toward the soil.
- Particular attention should be paid to the space around the trunk: cut off the branches directed in his direction and young growth.
- Formation of the crown is carried out by removing thickening (growing too close) and cleft branches (shoots from dormant buds).
The described method is ideal for the annual pruning of a well-developed tree, but the methods of forming young saplings and old trees have a number of certain differences.
Pruning young seedlings
- From the moment the young sapling is planted in the ground until the beginning of fruiting, the main task will be to form a skeleton tree skeleton, track the growth of fresh shoots and bookmark future fruit formations. To ensure all these points it is necessary to ensure the growth of the crown - evenly in all directions. Therefore, pruning of one-year-old shoots and branches thickening the crown mass is made. Actively growing shoots are truncated by 50%, and slower by 25%. Thanks to such manipulations, the crown of a young sapling after a few years becomes powerful and fruitful.
- Young seedlings are pruned annually, due to rapid growth. The most successful period for pruning is considered to be late autumn. After leaf fall, all damaged and excess shoots are removed. This not only allows you to prepare the tree for the winter, but also to achieve high-quality air exchange and crown lighting.
Pruning fruit trees video
Pruning adult fruit trees
- It is easy enough to form the crown of new plantings, the main thing is to follow all the rules. But as for the old fruit trees, then there should be certain steps. This is due to the fact that the entire harvest on such trees, as a rule, is located at the very top of the crown, the fruits are relatively small in size and appear irregularly.
- The painstaking process of reviving old fruit trees has been going on for several years, and consists of the following measures.
- In the first year, the crown is cut several levels down and only on the southern side of the tree. All work must be carried out with the aim of transferring the main branches to the side branch.
- In the next season, it is mandatory to trim the "tops" formed during the previous procedure. Otherwise, they will absorb the nutrients needed by the living part of the tree. The removal process is performed “on the ring”, and the season of the year does not affect the quality of the procedure performed.
- In subsequent years, pruning of the remaining part of the crown, and then cleaning from the "wolves".
- The most favorable period for pruning old trees is winter time. This is due to the fact that during this period fresh cuts do not rot and pests cannot start in them.
Useful tips for pruning fruit trees
There are certain nuances, observing that it is possible to carry out high-quality pruning of fruit trees, even under the condition that a person does it for the first time.
- A very important point in the work is the presence of sharp tools - after all, the cut must be done sharply and at a time, otherwise the branch can be damaged and it will stop developing.
- All cut material is best burned off-site - so you can avoid infestation of healthy trees with parasites.
- When carrying out the most rigid pruning (up to 35% of the length of the entire branch), it is necessary to observe the periodicity per year, or even two. Do not forget that the option of deep pruning is very traumatic for a plant, as a result of which a considerable part of it can die.
- If it is necessary to achieve the fastest growth from the fruit tree, it is necessary to reduce the main number of fruiting buds during the pruning period.
- Do not touch the frozen branches of the fruit tree in winter. However, it is recommended to wait for the spring - then the picture of the dead plots will be more complete and can be carefully removed.
- When pruning it is important to observe the subordination of the branches. This means that the number of main and secondary branches should be uniform, otherwise a crown may be supersaturated with branches or an excessively thinned crown.
- When pruning the branches around the main trunk, you should not leave adjacent to it, ie acute angles.
- It is important to remember that it is the horizontal branches that differ in the maximum level of fruiting. This should be taken into account when pruning fruit trees, to regulate the amount of the crop.
- Slices that are large in diameter must be treated with a special compound: garden warp or heteroauxin - this will accelerate the healing of the plant. But the use of oil paint as a coating of cuts is not recommended.
- Young trees should be pruned minimally - only for the purpose of crown formation. Unnecessary changes can lead to deterioration of the fructifying properties.
Painstaking work, which is associated with pruning fruit trees in the garden, over time pays for a decent fruit harvest. The most important thing is to adhere to the generally accepted recommendations, because the seemingly simple process, in fact, requires the performer not only to follow the technology, but also to be accurate.
Why do pruning
To begin with, pruning trees and shrubs is carried out not only in spring, but also in summer / autumn, respectively, depending on the season, the purpose of pruning varies.
Formative pruning. Such actions are carried out both to form the crown of a tree or shrub to create the desired shape, and to obtain symmetry so that the crop ripens evenly on all branches without overloading a separate part of the plant.
To adjust the fruiting. It is carried out exclusively for crops that yield. The point is to adjust the period of fruiting and frequency.
To improve lighting. The fact is that the upper branches may be so thickened that the lower branches will not receive light at all, because of which the products will begin to ripen at different times and have a different quality. It is carried out to increase the yield.
The process is to remove annual growths to enhance growth and stimulate the development of the kidneys, which are located up to the cut. Also, the branches after shortening thicken, which has a positive effect on productivity (thicker branches withstand the weight of fruits better and suffer less from gusts of wind). During shortening, we remove 1/5 or 1/4 (weak shortening), but not from the whole branch, but from the annual increase. That is, from the length that the branch grew over the year.
Depending on the strength of trimming, distinguish weak, medium (1/3 length) and strong (1/2). Now let's talk about anti-aging pruning, when a significant part of the shoot is removed.
If a 2–3-year growth is removed, then it is considered light embossing, the removal of 3–4-year-old wood is rejuvenation, and if most skeletal shoots are cut off - a strong rejuvenation.
Removing perennial branches
Removal of perennial shoots should be carried out not only in order to remove diseased or dry branches, but also for thinning the crown or its formation.
It is possible to cut off branches both round and partially removing shoots on one side. You can also remove the center conductor to limit growth, however this is done after the formation of the plant.
Partial removal helps to compensate for the development of a tree, when more sprouts develop on one side than on the other. The resulting symmetry gives the best stability, and during fruiting such a tree will not “collapse” to one side.
Features of the formation of a pyramidal and weeping crown
Let's start with the fact that the formation of the crown should be dealt with immediately after planting, and not when it has already been formed and you can only adjust the crown. Let's start with the pyramidal crown.
Such a crown has several tiers, each of which develops up to 5 skeletal branches that extend from the trunk almost at a right angle. The first formative pruning is carried out immediately after planting.
We need to cut the central stem to the bud, which will be opposite to the inclination of the tree. Next, cut off the shoots, forming longlines. Strong shoots cut low, weak - high. Left skeletal branches need to be shortened by 2 times.
Next, monitor the growth and carry out the second pruning, forming the second tier. Skeletal branches of the second tier should be located above the intervals of the first.
If you want to get a non-tiered pyramidal crown, then do not lay skeletal ramifications and do not cut overgrown thin branches.
Weeping crown. It is formed both with the help of the correct pruning and with the use of various stretch. First we need to cut the trunk to the lower skeletal branches.
Next, shorten the skeletal branches by half so that during the growth small branches are directed downwards. We need to remove the lower buds and cut off all the shoots that grow up.
If you need to form a large weeping crown, then leave several skeletal branches and, after the initial pruning, near the cut of the skeletal shoot, leave one branch that will grow upwards. It also needs to be cut periodically to achieve compaction and release into a new skeletal branch.
You can also use stretch, but you can not calculate the force and break the shoots. Moreover, the stretch marks are applied to a 3-4 year old tree, otherwise the branches will precisely “fold” in half.
In one go
Pruning is carried out in order to remove diseased damaged wood at the first fork. Depending on the height of the tree, the cut is carried out 60-150 cm from the ground, so that there are any shoots or buds on the left above-ground part. Otherwise, the tree will be very hard to re-build the whole green mass.
The cut should be smooth. On the wood below the cut should not be cracks, fungus or any holes. You should have something like this: a high stump, from which sprouts are coming. Further, as overgrowth grows, they can be formed into a pyramidal crown with the help of stretch. As a result, in one approach you will cut old wood and, if everything goes as it should, you will get a young tree with good fruit bearing after several years. The point is not only in the aboveground part, but in a good root system, which takes up a small area and will give an impetus to growth.
Deletion in 2 steps
After a few decades, many garden crops grow to such a height that the crop cannot be harvested, and the lower shoots die due to the thickening of the crown, which is also very difficult to thin out. Therefore, many gardeners decide to replace the crown in 2 stages, which we will talk about.
In the first year, most of the skeletal shoots on the south side are cut off, greatly shortening the small branches that form in the right direction. After 2-3 years, the same manipulations are carried out with the northern side of the tree, after which they receive an updated crown, which gives more available for picking fruits. The point is that in the process of formation you will receive a harvest each year.
Pros and cons of spring pruning
It's time to talk about the pros and cons of pruning fruit shrubs and trees in the spring.
- Cuts are quickly tightened due to good sap flow.
- Comfortable conditions.
- You can remove both dry and diseased branches, and frozen until the moment when the tree begins to give all its strength to the formation of green mass.
This concludes the discussion on the topic of pruning various garden trees and shrubs. It should be understood that the formation of the crown should be carried out only in accordance with the rules, the violation of which will lead to deformation of the aerial parts and various diseases. Try to avoid mistakes that are difficult to fix later.
First steps: the choice of tool, the principles of the formation of the crown
Any pruning is an injury to a tree. It depends on the type and quality of the tool how quickly the fruit culture will be restored. The smoother the cut, the faster the plant will recover.
- garden knife - the main tool,
- hacksaw - for trimming thick, old branches,
Although the pruner cuts the branches with ease, it compresses the wood, which increases the time for wound healing.
We consider them in more detail during the article.
Crown formation pattern
The formation of the crown of fruit trees begins in the second year of life and lasts for several years. Any pruning scheme will be difficult if the branches are not located correctly. In Russia, two methods are most common: sparse-tiered and non-tiered.
Consider the first: it is simple, available to novice gardeners and is suitable for all types of fruit trees.
The first, lower tier is formed in the nursery, it facilitates the work of a novice gardener. When planting seedlings need to cut all the branches by 1/3. The root system is damaged when digging, and such pruning contributes to the harmonious development of the plant. When do you need to start crown formation after planting?
In the first year, the young fruit tree adapts to the new conditions, the roots develop, therefore the growth is small. In the second year, shoot growth will also be insignificant. From the third year after landing proceed to the formation of the crown.
With a sparsely-tiered system, the crown of the fruit tree consists of a central trunk and 5-6 branches located at different levels. The structure is visible on the right side of the schematic drawing: each branch of the next tier is located in the middle of the angle formed by the lower branches. See the distance between the tiers on the left side of the image.
To form the crown of the fruit tree, follow the instructions:
- Central shoot (guide) cut at a height of 80 cm from its base. Расстояние приблизительное, главное, чтобы на проводнике осталось 8-10 почек, из которых образуются новые побеги продолжения и боковые ветви. Так формируется первый ярус.
- На следующий год осмотрите саженец, удалите поврежденные морозами ветви, затем отберите 2 или 3 наиболее крепких. Остальные срежьте. Вы сформировали второй ярус.
- Третий ярус формируется по такому же принципу на 4 год.
As soon as the fruit tree reaches a height of 4 meters (if the variety is short, the maximum height), cut off the conductor above the top strong branch: you will stop growing. The crown of the young tree is formed.
To fix the material will help video from a specialist
Remember that with the described method it is impossible to oppress the tree, eradicating the inherent features of the variety.
How to carry out pruning trimming
The manipulation is carried out "on the kidney", that is, the lower part of the slice is on the same border with the base of the kidney, the top of the slice is at the level of the end of the kidney. If you cut too high, leaving a spike, the wound will heal for a long time. The exception is early pruning (in winter or in March). In this case, leave a thorn length of 2 cm, it will save the kidney when it frosts. For clarity, see the picture.
Pay attention: shortening pruning is done on the external kidney, that is, on the one that “looks” out.
What should be the distance between the branches of one tier
In this case, observe the angle of divergence between the skeletal branches: right angles are desirable. It is permissible to leave branches with a divergence angle of 70 0, if there is a straight or obtuse angle on the opposite side of the crown. See the figure for more details; it will help you to imagine how the branches should be located.
Angle of discharge
Under this term is understood the angle of inclination of the branch relative to the trunk, that is, its discharge. If the angle is chosen correctly, a ring is formed (flow). In the future, it does not allow the branch to break under the weight of the crop. See the picture, it shows in detail the allowable angle of discharge.
Ring trimming rules
Trimming a straight branch to the ring is not difficult. It is more difficult to do this if the angle of discharge is acute or dull. In order not to be mistaken, learn to determine the place of the cut, or rather its beginning. If the angle of origin in the fruit tree is acute - make a cut a little higher than the influx of bark, for an obtuse angle make a cut at the place of influx. See description in pictures.
Pruning large branches on old fruit trees
The wood of an old tree is strong and dense, with improper pruning the bark of the trunk is damaged. To avoid this, make an incision on the bottom side with a depth of 1/3. Then step back from the bottom file, 2-3 cm, and cut the branch from above. With this method, the bark is not torn off.
Anti-aging pruning: how to do
If the orchard is distinguished by the predominance of old trees by the age of 30 years - there is a decrease in yield. In this case, a rejuvenating trim is needed, which is carried out according to the following scheme:
- Inspect the tree, reveal dying branches.
- At their base, choose strong fat shoots.
- Back off 1-2 cm from the base of the fat shoot and cut (dry) the drying branch.
- Place the cut to cover with garden pitch.
It is desirable that there was not one, but several strong shoots near the place of cutting: then the wound will heal faster. To shoots do not grow much, you need to hold a pinning.
If you remove all dying branches at once, the tree may wither. Therefore, experts recommend to stretch the rejuvenation for 4 years, performing it in parts. Formation of the crown in the future is the same as for the young tree.
Sanitary pruning of fruit trees - what you need to know
Sanitary pruning is carried out annually in the fall. Its purpose is to remove dried or diseased branches.
The rules for this type of pruning:
- shoots remove over the outer bud, skeletal branches - on the ring,
- cut off sick and dry branches with a healthy part,
- if the branch is vertical - make an oblique cut,
- after trimming, clean all wounds with a garden stick or other putty.
In fact, sanitary pruning reminds partly rejuvenating, partly forming. Technique performance and rules are the same.
When and how to prune an apple tree
The answer to the question of which month to prune an apple tree depends on its age. If the tree is young, cut it in spring, before bud break. The time depends on the region - approximately the beginning-middle of March. For the adult tree, in which the movement of the juice and the swelling of the buds come earlier, winter pruning is carried out in late February.
Rules to follow:
- make sure that the thickness of the branches that depart from the conductor, was not more than 1/2 of the diameter of the trunk,
- too thin branches are also unacceptable
- angle of departure 40 0 (it can be corrected, look at the picture),
- in the lower tier there are no more than 3-4 branches with a divergence angle of at least 90 0.
Adjust the width of the crown can be trimmed to the lateral bud. See the technique on the image.
The scheme of pruning a young apple:
- Start by trimming the conductor. Focus on the skeletal branches: the height of the slice should be higher by 5-15 cm.
- Shorten strong shoots-competitors, as well as old branches, growing at a sharp angle of discharge.
- Now look at the apple tree. All branches growing inside the crown must be cut into a ring.
- The branches subordinate to the conductor. See the picture below for the subordination for the apple tree.
To avoid further thickening of the crown - pinch all shoots that are not needed for the formation of skeletal branches. As you grow, shorten or remove.
On the topic of pruning apple, watch the video.
How to trim a pear
Apple and pear have almost the same pruning pattern. True, the trees are somewhat different, so there are some nuances:
- In winter, the twigs tend to freeze, resulting in a lot of tops. They need to either shorten (to get semi-skeletal branches), or cut.
- Strong pruning weakens the young pear and increases fruiting time. This is especially true for the Moscow region and more northern regions. Therefore, pruning should be moderate.
- Annual increments can be slightly shortened. This will strengthen their branching.
Remember that complex fruit branches in the upper part of the annual growth maintain long-term productivity.
Cherry and sweet cherry pruning scheme
Species are related, because pruning is carried out according to one scheme. Trees are characterized by a relatively short fruiting period (on average, 15 years), consider this when forming the crown. Pay attention to the characteristics of fruiting, so as not to reduce the yield:
- bushy varieties - the fruits of last year's growth,
- treelike - fruiting on bouquet sprigs.
Formation of the crown and pruning of cherries is carried out in the following sequence:
- In the first year, leave 3-7 strong branches that “look” in different directions and are at a distance of 8-10 cm from each other.
- Shtambu form a height of 25-40 cm.
- The branches that are located below the selected, as well as all the weak cut on the ring.
- The center conductor must be 15-20 cm above the branches.
Cherries and cherries, regardless of planting time, should be cut in the spring. If for some reason you missed the moment - postpone the event for next year.
In the future, pruning is reduced to the formation of 8-10 skeletal branches, the elimination of excessive thickness of the crown and sanitary measures. Every year, inspect the cherries and cherries, once every two years, remove the branches growing inside the crown. See the principles of pruning can be in the figure.
Apricot pruning: what you need to know
In recent years, apricot is grown not only in the Krasnodar Territory and other southern regions. Therefore, the question of how and when to form a crown is of concern to gardeners from all over the country. The scheme of pruning apricot in the spring is somewhat different from the approach to other fruit trees. The plant is characterized by an abundance of fruit ovaries, many fruits are formed, under the weight of which the branches break. Without pruning the branches give very few branches, and their attachment to the conductor is weak. Consider these points.
The correct trimming scheme consists of several steps:
- In the first year, select 2 branches on the sapling, the distance between which is 30-40 cm.
- Tie the remaining branches to the trunk, Shorten the center conductor by 25 cm, and the skeletal branches by ½ of their length.
- Increments on the trunk, as well as branches with an acute angle of discharge, remove the ring. This should be done in May.
- The second tier is formed the following year from 1-3 branches, located at a height of 40 cm from last year’s branches.
- The conductor is cut at a height of 50 cm from the uppermost skeletal branch. Last year's growth is shortened by ½. At this stage, as soon as the branches reach a length of 8 cm, shoots appear competing, growing vertically. They must be cut on the ring.
- For 3-4 years the formation of the crown ends, and the conductor is removed over the last skeletal branch. This year's increase is also subject to removal. On the second tier form branches of the second order, and on the first - the third.
For more information about pruning apricot, you can look at the video from a specialist.
Secrets of specialists concerning trimming
Gardeners have accumulated decades of experience, experimented with schemes for pruning fruit trees, and obtained amazing results. We have selected for you some subtleties that will help preserve and even increase the harvest.
- If you bend a quarter of the skeletal branches to the ground, or bring them to a horizontal position, it is possible to bring the first crop closer. The explanation is simple: in this position, the branches of the kidneys more slowly go to the roots of nutrients. A schematic drawing will help to better understand the technique.
- Pruning of fruit trees can be started if the air temperature is above -5 0 С.
- To stimulate the growth of a kidney, make a crescent-shaped incision above it, at a distance of 5 mm, capturing the wood (2 mm depth). This method can be used in the case when shortening the escape continuation is undesirable.
- During pruning, remove and root growth, leaving no hemp.
- To make larger wounds heal faster, gloss over them twice, a second time 4 months after pruning. But if the wound is less than 1 cm in size, it is not necessary to gloss over it.
You have read the article, but still can not figure out when and what work to carry out? Especially for you, we have prepared a calendar for pruning fruit trees for 2016. In more detail about the works waiting for you and the timing of their implementation can be in the lunar calendar.
Unfortunately, it is impossible to uncover such an extensive topic as the scheme of pruning fruit trees in one article. Therefore, if you have any questions - feel free to ask them in the comments. We will try to help you. Do not forget to share material with friends from social networks. Bookmark the site, we are constantly updating the material, and you can learn a lot about gardening.
The article used the following pruning literature:
7 basic rules for pruning
- The best time for this procedure in the northern regions is early spring, after the end of severe frosts. Due to this, the wounds do not freeze slightly and quickly overgrow at the beginning of sap flow. The cuts should be smooth. Smear them with garden pitch.
- Shoots are cut above the eyes, directed outward from the crown, and cut from the inside to the outside, so that the cut starts from the side opposite the eye and at the same height as the eye, but ends slightly above the eye.
- The middle branches, serving as a continuation of the trunk, are left longer than the others.
- Last year's shoots can be pruned, depending on the growth and purpose of pruning.
- Short pruning is carried out on low-growing trees. Here the branches are cut over 2-3 eyes. Short pruning is used on weak, thin branches. But strong branches are not cut longer or newer,
- Medium pruning is used for strong growth. Shoots cut over the 5th eye.
- Long pruning is used for tall trees. In this case, leave 7-8 or more eyes.
All dry branches should be cut to a healthy place. If there is an empty space in the crown, i.e., the space that is not filled with branches, then when cutting, the closest branch is cut above the eye, directed into this free space of the crown.
Between the branches of the crown balance is maintained so that the crown is always kept symmetrical. All branches growing inside the crown, cut to the ground.
A well-formed crown should have at least four main branches, of which one shoot is directed upwards and serves as a continuation of a trunk. The remaining three are side branches. With five branches, the crown is even better, but this is if the tree has a strong trunk.
Apple and plum grow to the sides, so the crown they should have a spherical shape.
The pear grows more upwards, forming a pyramidal crown.
The cleaning of the crown of fruit trees is done first annually, and when the tree reaches 25 years of age - once every two years. The benefits of cleaning the crown of barren and dry twigs are obvious: it will become lighter inside the crown, it will be well ventilated.
Branches and twigs
Young trees on the formation of branches takes 4-6 years.
When the main branches of the crown have already formed on the tree, then any main shoot should be handled during pruning in the same way as with a single tree. On such a branch there should be a continuation run and a certain number of side branches. Within 4–5 years, all these shoots should, if possible, be cut so as to form true 2nd order branches, accelerate and increase the formation of fruit branches.
Each of the main branches after spring pruning shoots out of the left eyes of shoots, of which only those that are directed outwards should be saved. All others are removed by breaking out the kidneys. Excess branches cut to the ground. On the shoots of the continuation of the main branches and shoots of the 2nd order leave a few extra eyes (longer pruning), just as they do on the branches that serve as a continuation of the trunk.
If it is noticed that after spring pruning, the tree has gone too far in growth, then you have to remove the upper part of the shoots with your fingers or a sharp tool, thereby limiting their growth upwards. They do this when the lower parts of the shoots are already woody, and their tops are still soft, grassy. They make the nipping not too early, but not too late, otherwise new shoots will develop from the lower eyes.
Pruning branches on the main branches and branches of the 2nd order is carried out, depending on the strength of growth. Do it once, not annually. In subsequent years, pruning will be to remove closely growing branches on the side branches and intertwining branches.
Pruning berries and fruit crops
Pruning cherries and plums should not be strong. After the procedure, all sections are covered with garden pitch, in order to avoid dangerous stone stones.
Hazel it is better not to cut, as shoots, loose by nature, tend to dry out after partial removal. In case of damage to the shoots by frost, do not rush to trim. It is necessary to wait for the moment when an escape will develop from the remaining alive eye, and after it grows, cut off the dried part of the escape.
Have raspberries next year's strong root shoots produce greater yields. And on a two-year sprout, only branches branching from below to stem height bloom and bear fruit, so that its upper part is usually barren. In the spring, dry branches are removed from two-year-old shoots that already yielded a harvest last year. Then from the one-year shoots choose the four best, and the rest cut out at the base. Leaving a larger number of shoots is unprofitable - it turns out more berries, but smaller and of lower quality. You should make sure that the shoots left for fruiting are healthy before small but full-fledged shoots that can replace them are cut. Stems damaged by frost have cracked bark. The four best shoots of last year are shortened to their lengths.
Gooseberry brings berries on one-year-old branches of moderate growth along their entire length. Therefore, these branches retain. Spring cut out the old fruitless shoots at the base. To lighten the bush, also remove weak one-year-old twigs.
Bushes currants You can cut it in the form of a trellis, a pyramid or create a spherical shape. Do it in late March or early April. But for such a formation, the bush should be prepared the previous summer - in June-July, when the tops of improperly growing shoots are pinched.
Rules for pruning fruit trees in spring
This mandatory agrotechnical event is one of the most difficult elements of tree care. After all, there are many varieties of fruit trees, each of which responds in its own way to the removal of branches and crown changes. However, there are general rules for pruning fruit trees in spring:
- For work using a sharp garden knife or hacksaw.
- The cut should be made oblique. It should start from the opposite side of the kidney and end at the apical bud.
- First of all, it is necessary to remove broken branches and shoots growing inside the crown.
- When pruning in the spring, try to keep those branches that grow horizontally, and remove the vertical shoots or those that are directed down, because the yield on them is lower.
- The cut should be done over a healthy well-developed vegetative kidney.
- One-year escape should be shortened to the kidney, leaving no hemp.
- Two-four-year shoots or half-skeleton branches are cut to the nearest branching or to the place where new branches should appear.
- The skeleton branch must be removed in parts. The first cut is made 30 cm above the trunk, the second is 2-5 cm above the previous one, and the remaining stump should be cut “on the ring”, cleaning the cut off surface.
When to prune fruit trees in spring?
Иногда неопытные садоводы интересуются, когда начинать обрезку плодовых деревьев весной. Точных сроков этого мероприятия установить невозможно. Все зависит от того, какой климат в вашей местности, ранняя весна предполагается или поздняя. Оптимальным вариантом будет март-апрель – момент до начала сокодвижения в растениях. Молодые деревья обрезаются только весной.
At what temperature do pruning fruit trees?
It will be better if the air temperature does not decrease sharply when pruning fruit trees. Do not prune at temperatures below -8 ° C. During this period, the branches of the trees become fragile and the cuts will be uneven. And in cold and humid weather, the flow of gum from stone fruit crops increases. Therefore, pruning should be carried out at a temperature close to 0 ° C.
Pruning of old fruit trees in spring
Trees that are 30 years old or older are considered old. The purpose of pruning such “veterans of the garden” is to remove weakly bearing branches and grow a young crown. Pruning of old fruit trees should be done very carefully. For each plant species this agrotechnical method has its own characteristics:
- Getting rid of the old branches of cherries and cherries, remember that their wood is fragile and can easily break. In addition, growth buds are only at the ends of the branches, so they can not be cut. It is necessary to delete only the whole branch.
- Conducting spring pruning of the old apricot, first remove the branches that grow down, because they bear fruit is already bad. Then the branches that are directed inside the crown are cut. If the tree is very tall, then it is necessary to remove too long branches that grow upwards in order to better grow the lower shoots.
- Rejuvenating the apple tree or pear in the spring, first shorten the largest branches, and cut the dry branches at the very trunk. Then cut those branches that thicken the crown. After that, the central branch is cut at a height of approximately 3.5 m. It is also necessary to cut the tops, but not all, but leave 10 pieces, evenly throughout the crown.
Pruning of young fruit trees in spring
While the tree is young, it is easier to properly form its crown, to make it light and breathable, which will positively affect the quality of the harvest in the future. Pruning of young fruit trees should be aimed at stimulating crown growth not vertically upwards, but to the sides. To do this, shorten annual shoots. Quickly growing branches can be shortened by 50%, and those that are weaker - by 25-30%.
Errors when pruning fruit trees
Many novice gardeners, not knowing what the principle of pruning fruit trees and peculiarities of crown formation in different plants, immediately begin to work and do it wrong. There are those who generally ignore pruning, limiting themselves to removing broken and dry branches. In order to prune fruit trees in the spring was carried out successfully and brought benefits, let's consider what mistakes should be avoided:
- The timing of pruning. Works should be carried out in early spring, in the period before the beginning of the active movement of juices in the trees.
- Regularity pruning. It should begin the next year after planting a tree.
- The presence of hemp. Pruning fruit trees in early spring should be carried out "on the ring."
- Excessive trimming.
- Bully bark when sawing thick branches.
- Use garden pitch need a day after pruning.