How to care for cyclamen at home, tips with photos,
Cyclamen or dryak - a perennial ornamental plant.
His homeland are considered the countries of the Mediterranean and Asia Minor.
The genus Cyclamen (Cyclamen L.) includes about 15 species.
Of these, the sale of the most common cyclamen is Persian, European, Kosovo, Neapolitan.
• Cyclamen persian originally from the Eastern Mediterranean. It has dark green heart-shaped leaves with a marble pattern. It blooms from September to March with double flowers or simple flowers. Flower color varies from white to various shades of red. Rest period - May-June.
• European cyclamen found in the wild in Central and Southern Europe. It is also called alpine violet. Its leaves are smaller than those of the Persian. Flowers exude a fragrance, the intensity of which depends on the color of the flower: the lighter the shade, the thinner the smell. This species is the only one of all cyclamens that does not fall out during hibernation.
• Kosam Cyclamen named after the island of Kos, where it was first discovered. It has its own peculiarity: the petals expand sharply from the base and have a dark spot.
• Icy or Neapolitan Cyclamen different from other species in the form of leaves: due to the notched-jagged edges, they look like ivy leaves. It blooms in September and November. Flowers appear before the leaves.
In indoor floriculture mainly Cyclamen is grown Persian. He bred many varieties. According to the height of peduncles, they are divided into standard (20-30 cm), sredneroslye (15-22 cm) and undersized (up to 15 cm). The most popular varieties are Charlie, Scarlet Moth, Spring Moth, Lilu, Rosa, Flamingo, Sylphide, Topaz, Rembrand, Elf, Bellissima.
Cyclamens are strongly dependent on temperature conditions: they begin to grow vegetative when it is wet and cool. When the air temperature rises, they prepare for a rest period. This creates a certain difficulty in caring for cyclamen at home, especially during the heating season. However, if you follow certain rules for the care of these capricious, then bright flowers, butterflies, you can admire more than one year.
Cyclamen: home care - breeding, transplanting, rest period
At home, breeding cyclamen is not very easy. It can be grown from seed and delenki tuber.
If the seeds are purchased in garden stores, then when you buy, you need to see the shelf life on the package: the seeds remain viable for up to 2 years.
If there is a flowering cyclamen in the house, the florist will have to work with a pollinator bee to get his seeds: pollen from one flower with a cotton swab or brush is transferred to another. To reinforce success in pollination, the procedure is repeated several times. The best time for this is the morning hours of a sunny day.
Ripened seeds are stored for 2 months and then sown, pre-soaked them in Zircon.
As a substrate peat is mixed with vermiculite or leaf earth in equal parts. Seeds do not need to be deeply buried in the ground: spreading them on the surface, they are sprinkled with a thin layer of soil. The optimum temperature for germination will be + 20 ° C (at a higher value, the seeds will hibernate, and at less than + 18 ° C, the probability of their rotting is high). Landings need to be periodically moistened and aired.
Most often when growing cyclamen and violating the rules of caring for it, the following problems may arise:
- leaf or flower scapes rot. The reason for this situation is inappropriate temperature or careless watering,
- gray rot appears on the buds and flowers. The provoking factor is low temperature, high humidity and poor air exchange in the room,
- short flowering phase - this phenomenon is caused by inappropriate temperature or irrigation regime.
How to plant and grow Cyclamen cyclamen at homeA variety of exotic plants that come to us from overseas is suitable for home breeding. In particular, this includes the Kosovo cyclamen, one description of which already raises questions about his breeding at home. Let's take a closer look at this amazing representative of the flora and deal with its basic requirements for growing.
Cyclamen dubbed the herb of the family Mirsinovye, although some scientists attribute it to another family - Primrose.
In the wild, the flower lives in Iran, Northeast Africa and the Mediterranean, but most often it can be found in Turkey.
Certain species that are used as indoor plants are successfully used in the treatment of sinusitis, but in any case, it is necessary to observe safety measures, as there is a risk of burning the mucous membrane.
This is one of the few plants (reaches a height of 10-15 cm), flowering in the autumn-winter period. Its leaves are up to 15 cm in length and have a heart-shaped form with a dark green color (it can reach almost a silvery shade, which depends on the particular variety).
Also on them you can see a thin silver or white pattern. Leafy plates are located on fleshy petioles.
At home, it is possible to observe the flowering of Kosovo cyclamen from November until March itself, and the flowers that appear appear very elegant: they have pink, red, white colored petals (or two-colored), with a brightly colored base. In sunny weather they exude a pleasant, subtle fragrance.There is a definite pattern in the change in the color of the petals, the size of the flowers and the shape of the leaves: pale pink petals and buds are more characteristic of plants from Syria and southern Turkey.
If we talk about the colors brought from the eastern part of these countries, they will be larger, and the sheet plates will be much narrower.
In addition, this species is characterized by a tuber with roots growing only from below.
The choice of space in the room
Like any other plant, the Kosovo cyclamen requires a certain attention, and it is important to consider several basic parameters when being kept at home: lighting, temperature, air humidity and soil composition.
Despite the fact that the kamen cyclamen is a rather light-loving plant, contact with its leaves in direct sunlight threatens to burn them.
Therefore, window sills from the west or east side of the house are best suited for its placement. In case of emergency it is possible to place the pots with the plant on the southern windows, only in this case they will have to be blocked.
Temperature and humidity
Growing up the Kosovo cyclamen in your home, it is important to provide him with an optimal temperature regime. In winter, the temperature may be reduced to + 11 ... + 14 ° C, but in summer it would be better if the temperature readings remain at + 18 ... + 25 ° C. The most comfortable values for sufficient plant growth and flowering are + 11 ... + 14 ° C.
Prior to the formation of buds, cyclamen should be regularly sprayed, but as soon as they appear, this procedure is stopped, otherwise their rotting is possible. Water can also be added to the pallet, but only if it is filled with peat, expanded clay or pebbles.
The composition of the soil mixture also plays an important role in the successful cultivation of a flower. Therefore, to obtain timely and abundant flowering it is so important to prepare the right substrate.
The ideal option would be a mixture of leaf and sod land (in equal proportions) with the addition of crushed lime, crushed lime or old plaster. Also, we should not forget about the drainage, because plants often suffer from even a slight excess of moisture.
Landing at home
Planting cyclamen at home can be done in two ways: by seed and by dividing the tuber. Both processes cannot be called too complex, but in order to obtain the most optimal result one should competently approach the preparation of planting material and remember some nuances of the landing itself.
All seed must have a holistic structure, and it is not necessary to buy it, because if you have flowering cyclamen, you can also collect seeds from it.
When a pollinated plant forms a box after time (it matures about 4 months), it remains to extract the seeds from it and plant them in a prepared substrate. The main thing - the tank should not be too deep and do not need to pour a lot of soil mixture.
Grooves for seeds are also made small - no longer than 1 cm long. There is a gap of 3 cm between individual seeds. Seed material is filled up with a small amount of earth, and it is very important to control the level of soil moisture. The first shoots will appear in a month.
The reproduction of Kosovo cyclamen with the help of tubers is possible, but at home it is undesirable. This procedure is performed during the dormant period of the plant and will require some special knowledge from you.
Before dividing the onion, it is removed from the soil and dried thoroughly, after which it is cut into several pieces (for a start, it is better to only two). It is very important that each piece received contains a kidney.
All withdrawn parts are processed with crushed charcoal and dried again. Then the whole process goes according to the standard scenario: each process is planted in a separate pot, deepening a few centimeters.
If you decide to purchase ready-made parts of a tuber, be sure to pay attention to the kidneys: they must be intact and free from damage. Such a tuber is treated with a growth accelerator and left for a while in a bright place.
A young plant should be watered periodically, but not poured, otherwise the beginning of decay is possible.
The reproduction of cyclamen by dividing a tuber is quite a problematic process, especially for beginning gardeners, but there is still a chance. As an alternative option, kids will also be suitable for the role of planting material (they take root much faster).
How to water a flower
Koska cyclamen, like many of its hybrids, requires regular but dosed irrigation, especially during the growing season. Fluid introduction is usually done by dipping, and when watering from above it is important to control this process so that water does not get on the leaves and tubers.
It would be more correct to inject liquid over the edge of the pot. During the dormant period of the plant, the amount of moisture is reduced, but we should not allow the land to dry out.
In the process of active flowering and growth of the plant, it must be fed 1 time in 2 weeks, using complex mineral fertilizer (usually the required dosage is indicated on the package). After sowing the plant (when grown from seed) in the first 6 months, along with mineral compounds, organic matter must also be applied.
Transplantation of cyclamen (not only Kosovo) should be performed regularly: every year at the same time, before budding begins. Usually this time falls on the middle of summer, when new leaves gradually start growing.
Do not underestimate the importance of this procedure, because in 12 months the soil in the pot is very depleted, which worsens its structure. When transplanting you are required to completely replace the old soil mixture with a new one, with the obligatory removal of rotten and dead roots.
If you want your cyclamen to live long and delight you with its color, it is important to prepare the correct soil mixture, which is most often created from leafy earth, humus, sand and peat.
Leafy land will need a little more than the rest of the ingredients, which are taken in equal proportions. If you have no desire to independently engage in the preparation of the substrate, then it can be purchased in finished form at any specialty store.
Having dealt with the new soil and picking up the appropriate container for the further development of your cyclamen, make small holes at the bottom of the pot and lay a drainage in the form of ordinary pebbles or claydite, which will save the plant from waterlogging.
When pouring new soil into a pot, you do not need to tamp it, and to improve the health of the cyclamen, before placing it in a new container, simply remove (unscrew) a few old leaves. The transplant procedure itself requires careful removal of the plant from the old pot and its careful transfer to the new one.
The flower should be placed exactly in the center, and for some time it is kept on weight so as not to damage the roots. They are gently straightened, and only after that they begin to pour the rest of the soil (at first, only the bottom is filled with substrate).
To protect the plant from damage to the roots, they, along with the bulb, are taken out of the old pot while preserving the earthen clod.
Major Diseases and Pests
The most dangerous pests for the cyclone of Kosovo are the cyclamen and spider mites, which can be removed using standard insecticides. As for diseases, in most cases the plant is exposed to attacks of sulfur and wet rot, as well as putrefactive effects on the root system.
The vascular system and cyclamen tissues are affected by fusarium, and the vessels are completely blocked with harmful microorganisms that produce toxic substances.
It is because of them that the flower ceases to receive the necessary nutrition and quickly dies. The fungus can be stored in the ground or on the stem for quite a long time, waiting for the right moment to penetrate the root system of the plant.
When exposed to wet rot (a dangerous disease of bacterial origin), cyclamen quickly fades and dries out, followed by rotting of the root system.
The infection is picked up to the plant through the water when it is watered or through another infected plant. The worst thing is to fight the disease is useless, so it remains only to destroy the infected flower.
Spores of gray rot fall on cyclamen with the help of wind and water, especially if the temperature in the room is very low and the humidity level is high.
Often there are cases of infection of cyclamen with anthracosis, a fungus that is able to stay in the soil for a long time and affect the area of growth of peduncles and leaves of the plant.