In this article I would like to tell you how good the Bessei cherry variety is for growing. During the long years of work at my summer cottage, I planted a lot of fruit trees, vegetables, berries, and other things.
Each variety of various plants has its own requirements for proper cultivation. In this article I will talk about the requirements of cherry Bessey.
This cherry variety is from North America. In our country, the bush is especially popular in northern latitudes, in the Urals and the Far East.
This variety is noteworthy for gardeners by the fact that the bush begins to bear fruit early enough, and also has a high yield. This cherry is not susceptible to fungal diseases. In addition, it grows very quickly, welcomes almost any soil, responds normally to temperature changes, is drought-resistant.
Description of the variety of sand cherry
Bessei refers to micro-cherries, due to the low growth of the bush and small berries. Speaking of relationships, it can be said that sand cherry refers more to the plum than to ordinary cherry.
The bush of this plant grows to a maximum of one and a half meters. The branches are straight, but after 7 years of life they begin to lie on the ground. In the spring, the bush begins to bloom with white and pale pink flowers, which are completely strewn with the plant. It looks very beautiful.
The leaves are somewhat reminiscent of willow, they are also elongated. Flowers are plants of both sexes. For higher yields cherry still needs a neighbor pollinator, but it must be a different form.
Bessei is a fast-growing and early-growing culture. The bush begins to give fruit from the second year after planting in open ground. Cherry annually. Fruits are small, dark, weigh up to 2.5 grams. The shape is most often oval or slightly elongated.
To taste, these berries are sweet enough, even tart, do not have sourness. Most gardeners can compare Bessey to taste with rowan or bird cherry.
The flowering of such a cherry begins a few weeks later than usual, but the ripe fruits are collected in mid-August. An interesting feature of this variety is the fact that ripe berries are not showered from the branches, they remain on them begin to wilt in the summer sun.
Planted seedlings should be in the spring. If you purchased seedlings with closed roots, then they can be planted in summer and even in early autumn.
If planting occurs in late autumn, the planting material is only buried, but not planted deeply. It is important to ensure that the distance from bush to bush is at least 2 meters.
If the soil on the site is heavy, then you should use drainage, which is perfect as broken brick, pebbles or crushed stone. If the soil is too acidic, it is better to use lime, otherwise the plant will begin to ache.
This technique in any case does not harm, even if you can not independently determine the level of acidity of the soil in your area.
It will be useful to know that all stone plants are best planted on a hill. Thus, you will avoid a large accumulation of moisture at the roots, which often leads to decay of the entire root system.
Lime is not only capable of reducing the acidity of the soil, but also serves as a fertilizer, as it contains many beneficial trace elements. If the soil is clay, then it can be diluted with sand. When planting in a pit, you need to add compost with ash and superphosphate.
All these components are mixed with the ground, a mound is made and a well-straightened seedling is planted in it. Immediately after planting a bush is to pour with warm water. If you have the opportunity to prepare a hole in advance, it is better to do it, so you will avoid subsidence of the land.
One of the main reasons for the growing popularity of the Bessey cherry variety was its resistance to severe frosts, down to -50 degrees. Plants begin to bear fruit from 2 to 5 years of age. Those branches that reach 7 years of age, begin to lean more and more to the ground and less fruit.
For this reason, old shoots can be safely cut. If for any reason the shoots began to dry and die, the bush can be cut off under the stump. New branches will start growing very quickly. Those shoots that thicken the cherry must be cut in the spring.
Potash fertilizers are most often used as fertilizers. In the event that the growth of cherries slowed down, you need to use nitrogen fertilizer, which contributes to the growth of greenery.
In one season, it is necessary to spray the bush 3 times with complex fertilizers. If aphids appeared on the leaves, then they need to be sprayed with a special preparation.
When growing such a cherry, do not rely only on the natural endurance of the plant, it is necessary to water the bush. The lack of moisture in this culture will immediately reduce its productivity.
High-quality watering is especially important in the formation of fruits. Shrubs that receive insufficient water during this period produce small and rare fruits.
Watering Bessey is necessary when the upper layers of the soil are well dried out a few centimeters deep. Another way to check the level of humidity is to compress a lump of soil under the plant; if it crumbles and does not hold the shape, the plant must be watered.
For more information about cherry care in the video:
History of origin and description of the variety Bessey
The variety was bred on the basis of the subspecies of the American sand cherry, first described by the scientist-naturalist C. Bessi. This interesting shrub was named in his honor. Despite the fact that the culture is referred to as "cherry", in fact, is a relative of the plum. Bessey easily crossed with plums, apricots, peaches. Attempts to use it as a stock for real cherries, were unsuccessful.
Attention! In botany, cherry is a subgenus of plum.
Modern breeders continue to engage in this interesting and very promising species. Already obtained forms with yellow and dark brown berries. Besse's microvister shrub grows to about 1.5 m. The branches can be:
The leaves are elongated, light green in summer and red in autumn. Flowering more later than the cherry and falls at the end of May. For the duration - 18-21 days. Abundant fruiting occurs on shoots of 2-5 years. The average weight of berries is no more than 2.6 g, in hybrid forms up to 3-5 g. Experimental subspecies are capable of producing 10 kg of fruits from one bush. Ripe cherries do not crumble, but remain “to dry up” on the branches.
Reproduction and planting Bessie's sand cherry
Young bush of cherry can be obtained:
- from seeds,
- from cuttings
- from the branch of the lower tier bent to the ground (layering).
The first method is the most time consuming and laborious. In order to grow cherries from the stone, the material is stratified. The procedure simulates the natural conditions and allows you to get high germination. Cherry seeds are laid out on a moist substrate:
- crushed peat,
- clay sand, river sand.
- Seeds are laid out on the surface for swelling. The soil moisture capacity is at least 70–80%. Air temperature + 10 ... + 15 ° С. Duration of 2–2.5 months.
- For naklevyvaniya seeds lower temperature to +6 ° C, and humidity up to 70%. Duration of 1.5–2 months.
When the third part of the seeds has come, the whole batch is placed at a temperature of +1 ° C and kept there before sowing. A few days before planting in open ground or in pots, the seeds are kept at +18 ° C.
It is much easier to grow Bessey from cuttings. This will require young shoots with leaves. The length of the branches is 7–15 cm. The cuttings are placed in a container with nutrient soil, covered with a package on top. The roots will appear in 2 weeks. For the winter, cuttings can be left in the open ground, mulching or prikopav earth. Some enter the young in a cool place, after wrapping the roots with wet moss and film.
Sand cherry does not form root shoots around its bushes, so the lower branches artificially bend to the ground and fix. Sprinkled with earth, give rise to new plants.
Besseya care: fertilizing, watering
For the Bessy micro-bush shrub, they select a site with sandy, well-aerated soil. The culture is undemanding to the composition of the soil, it can grow on loams, but with a good drainage layer. The acidity level is not higher than 7.0 ph.
The gerbil cherry tolerates low temperatures equally well (down to -50 ° C) and prolonged drought. The plant will not die in extreme heat, but the yield will reduce. Therefore, in summer, Bessey needs watering. The procedure is carried out if the ground dries out in several layers.
Attention! Frequent watering press the soil, pushing oxygen out of it.
Standard irrigation in the open field make no more than four. The first - after flowering, the second - during the formation of ovaries, the third - after harvest. The last “prewinter” watering occurs in the second decade of October.
For full growth and development make several dressings for the season:
- In early spring - potassium and nitrogen.
- During the active growing season - organic (cow dung, wood ash).
- After harvesting the fruits - complex min. fertilizer and rotted organic matter.
Fertilizers are applied in tree trunks. It is useful to conduct foliar feeding, sprinkling the crown with a solution of nutrients.
Bessey's pests and diseases
Fungal diseases pose a great danger to open-pit stone crops:
- Kokomikoz. On the foliage are found brown spots with a pinkish tinge. After the leaf dies, the whole plant is weakened, such bushes do not tolerate wintering and disappear. With the appearance of the first signs, the planting is treated with a solution of iron vitriol. Procedures carried out two with an interval of two weeks. All fallen leaves destroy.
- Monilioz. The spores of the fungus penetrate into the flower and remain until the formation of fruits. Ripening berries are covered with burn spots - this is the second stage of development. Affected fruits do not crumble, but remain on the branches, becoming foci of infection. For the fight using Bordeaux liquid or fungicides.
- Klesterosporiosis. Berries and foliage is affected by brown "perforated" spots. The causative agent is the spores of the fungus Clasterosporium carpophilum Aderh, Coryneum beyerinckii Oud. Affected plants are sprayed with Bordeaux liquid (30%) or fungicides: Embrelia, Signum. The same substances are suitable for prevention.
So that the planting of the fruit crop does not suffer from diseases, the sanitary cleanliness of the site is observed, the soil is dug up, and timely crown care is carried out.
Tip Shoots older than seven years are removed. It is recommended not to leave and too long branches more than 50 cm.
Interestingly, insects practically do not affect the gerbil. This is due to the strong aroma of flowers.
Cherry varieties Besseya samoplodna, but in order to get the fruits of the best taste, planted another form of pollinator. Compote is made from ripe berries, jams, consumed fresh. In addition, as seen in the photo, shrub miniature cherry is an excellent decoration of the garden plot.
Detailed description of the Bessey variety
Domestic cherry reaches a height of 1.2-1.5 meters. The bush has smooth shoots with smooth bark of red or brown color. Branches grow from the root of the neck. The leaves are elongated, fairly dense, dark green in color, become bright red in autumn.
Bessei begins to bloom in the second year after germination. The flowering period is long, the beginning is the first week of July.
Fruits are small, weighing 2-3 g. Cherries from modern varieties can be 5 g. The skin color is brown, black or green-yellow - depends on the type of Bessey. The flesh is green with red veins, juicy. The taste is tart, sweet, with a slight sourness. The yield from the bush is 6-10 kg. Ripe berries are not showered, after frost taste improves by reducing tartness.
Description of the features of the form:
- Resistance to coccomycosis and moniliasis.
- Resistance to frost.
- Drought tolerance.
- Roots withstand the temperature of the soil to -26 0 C.
High winter hardiness of Bessey cherries depends on the air temperature during the growing season (the higher it is, the more frost the plant can withstand). Therefore, it is advisable to grow cherries in forest-steppe zones. In the taiga zone, for example, the air temperature in summer is not high enough and in winter the plant can withstand temperatures down to -30 ° C.
The only way out is to cultivate the Bessei forms specially bred for the conditions of Siberia and the Far East:
You buy seedlings on the market and doubt which grade to choose?
Often, even sellers do not know what form of Bessey they sell. How to be in this case? Ask the seller about how the bush looks during the growing season, what are its fruits, and check the description in the table.
Modern varieties of cherry Bessey
Due to varietal characteristics, Bessey hybrids are a good option for rootstocks. Wild cherry is not suitable for these purposes: it has a weak root system, grafting a grape plum, apricot, peach leads to the overturning of the grown tree. The varieties of such trees are distinguished by larger berries with improved taste. In addition, plants can be planted both in the steppe and in the taiga zone, that is, in almost any region of Russia with the exception of northern latitudes.
See the table for the modern sorts of Bessey cherries.
For planting in Siberia and the Far East, choose Russian varieties. According to gardeners, Niels Hansen hybrids are more suitable for the North Caucasus.
Features of the cultivation of Besse culture
Remember that plants are home to regions of the North American continent with a temperate, dry climate. Besseya loves heat, so the sunny areas of the summer cottage, protected from the cold north wind, would be an ideal place for her. Any soil will do, but best of all, the cherry feels on the sandy soil, fertilized with humus.
The reason for this method is simple: the roots warm up better, the plant accumulates strength and endures the winter cold more easily.
Despite the frost resistance, for the winter fall asleep the plant with snow, with a layer thickness of at least 50 cm. Most important for Siberia. It is important to make holes in the snow with the help of a pole, this will provide ventilation and Bessei will not prop up.
Under normal conditions, the plant is not susceptible to disease. But if the summer is rainy, and the temperature is below the average annual, there is a chance of infection with coccomycosis.
The fight against fungus is as follows:
- in the fall, collect and destroy foliage; in the early spring, cut off the damaged branches,
- spray the tree with a 3% solution of ferrous sulfate before flowering,
- during the bud phase, treat with 1% Bordeaux mixture, repeat the procedure after flowering.
Do not forget to treat the wounds arising from the growth of garden pitch. Fight against insects is not required, the pests do not particularly favor Bessey because of the aroma that emanates during the flowering period (similar to the smell of bird cherry).
Reproduction and pruning
Bessei breeds beautifully by cuttings, bones, and layering, which gives a lot of old bush. When growing plants from pits, spend a two-month stratification, this will ensure friendly shoots. Further breeding farming practices do not differ from ordinary cherry cultivation measures.
Rules for the formation of the bush:
- In the first year of life of the seedling, cut off the shoot 5-10 cm from the top. Further, the formation of the bush will take place without your participation, due to the growth of lateral shoots.
- Periodically cut out the old branches, which are 4-5 years old, replacing them with young shoots. Long-term observations of gardeners indicate that it is the young branches that give high fructification.
- Most of the buds are formed on shoots of medium length, up to 50 cm. If you grow Bessey as a fruit shrub, leave these branches when pruning.
Root growth of a plant arises only because of injury by frost or inaccurate digging. In the latter case, shoots appear and are relatively far from the main bush. It can be used for breeding.
The use of varieties in the backyard
Cultivated Bessey cherries in garden plots, either as an ornamental plant or as a fruit crop.
With the help of plantations of bushes make hedges. The bush is quite bright, the leaves are dark green with a bluish tinge. During the flowering period, the plant is covered with small inflorescences, ripe berries nicely harmonize with greens, in the fall the foliage changes color to bright red.
If you are interested in purchasing Bessey as an ornamental shrub, pay attention to the Pisard variety. The hybrid was bred in 1910 by Niels Hansen, as a result of the crossing of Bessey and Cherry plum sand cherries. Shrub turned out stunted (not more than a meter) and unpretentious in the care. Interesting is the Pearl Leaf Sand Cherry variety, which has a dark purple foliage color. It is cultivated in the United States, and the last few years has been winning love for Russian gardeners.
Berries of a plant are suitable also for use in food, especially for compotes and jam.