Pear "Nika" ripens in late September. Gardeners and breeders appreciate this variety for good taste, long-term storage, and resistance to diseases. Fruit trees are unpretentious to the conditions of growth, perfectly tolerate the harsh climate and critical temperatures up to -38 degrees. A detailed description of the variety, its characteristics, the chemical composition of the fruit, see below.

Pear "Nika" ripens in late September

Pear varieties "Nika"

"Nika" - domestic selection, derived from the institute Michurin. A group of scientists headed by a disciple and follower of Michurin Yakovlev worked on the creation of the hybrid. The hybrid variety turned out as a result of crossing the pear “Talgar beauty” and “Daughter of the Dawn”. Pear is actively cultivated in the Central Black Earth region.

Characteristic variety

The pear is characterized by medium-intensity growth, grows low. The shape of the crown resembles a ball, branches forming a skeleton, rare, firmly fused together. The shoots of the plant are of medium thickness, grow straight, the color of the bark is brown. The leaves are oval-shaped, slightly curved, the end is slightly pointed. The surface of the leaves is smooth, matte color..

Pear "Nika" has the correct form, it is large, the weight of one is 180-200 grams. During the ripening period, green color with a slight red blur prevails in the fruit. When pears are poured with juice, the skin becomes yellow, brown patches appear clearly on the cover. This variety has a thin skin - it is smooth, with a well-marked wax coating. Description of the pulp describes it as juicy, medium density, cream color. The structure is tender, without grit. The taste is a sweet and sour pear, with a nutmeg aftertaste. Toughness in it.

Fruit Composition

Tasters rated this grade at 4.5 points out of 5 possible. “Nika” is valued for its high content of vitamin C and R. 100 grams of fruit contain:

  1. Sugar - 10 percent.
  2. Vitamin C - 6.2 mg.
  3. Vitamin P - 122 mg.
  4. Titrated acids - 0.4 percent.

The value of vitamin P is that the body does not produce it on its own - it comes with food. This type of pear is shown to people suffering from:

  1. Joint pains.
  2. Bleeding gums.
  3. Problems with blood pressure.
  4. The fragility of capillaries.
  5. Hair loss

All of these conditions are caused, including the deficiency of vitamin P, which is easily compensated by the introduction of pears "Nika" in the diet.

When pears are poured with juice, the skin becomes yellow, brown patches appear clearly on the cover

Yield

Variety is classified as medium skoroplodnosti. The first crop is harvested in 5-6 years after planting the seedling. The fruits ripen in early September, and removable maturity occurs on the 20th of the month. Ripe fruits, pouring juice, do not crumble, even if they are collected in early October. On the taste and presentation of the fruit is also not reflected. Pear stored 100-120 days after harvest. Optimal conditions for its storage - a dark cool room with a temperature of about 0 degrees. Fruits are universal, suitable for fresh consumption, preservation, preparation of juices, wines, marmalade. From pears of this selection make a delicious fragrant marshmallow.

The advantages of the variety

The variety “Nika” has many more advantages than disadvantages:

  1. Winter hardiness - one of the main advantages of the plant. It easily withstands cold temperatures of -35-38 degrees.
  2. With minor frostbite branches, the plant quickly recovers independently.
  3. The presentation of the fruit is preserved for the entire period of storage.
  4. Pears of this breeding have high immunity to scab, catastrophia and other diseases.

The fruit tree does not require special care - it is recommended to gardeners that they only cut dry branches every year and shorten shoots. If this is not done, then the crown will begin to barely grow intense, and the fruits will become small.

Today, this variety of pears is the embodiment of what gardeners call “demonless trees”.

Breeding history and breeding region

"Nika" obtained by the breeders of the GNU VNIIGiSPR them. I.V. Michurin. Parent Varieties: «Daughter of Dawn"And" Talgar Beauty ".

Authorship of breeding work belongs to: S.P. Yakovlev, A.P. Gribanovsky, N.I. Saveliev, I.A. Bandurko, M.Yu. Akimov and V.V. Chivilevu.

Since 2002, the variety is distributed mainly in the Central Chernozem region.

Pear "Nika": description of the variety and photos

Tree in scale medium thick. It has crown in the form of a ball, with rare spliced ​​skeletal branches. Fruiting occurs both on annual shoots and on perennial overgrowing branches.

The shoots are smooth, brown in color, medium in thickness and straight. Chechevichek on the bark a bit. Cone-shaped buds, slightly pointed at the ends. Oval leaves have a rich green color.

On the sides there is a characteristic serrated, at the end of a short point. Sheet plate is not curved much, different smooth matte surface. Stipules resemble an awl, petioles are average.

Variety pears "Nika" has large fruits, reaching up to 200 g The form conical with truncation, correct. Peel in appearance smooth, oily, has a waxy coating.

During the period of removable maturity fruits have greenish color with a blurred red, which is the coverslip. Later pears acquire more yellow shade with brown top coat.

Short curved stem, slanted at the base. The saucer is very small, mostly wide. Brown conical seeds, medium in size, are stored in closed seed chambers.

The flesh of the pears is very gentle, practically not having granularity and granulation.

The density is medium, slightly oily, cream colored.

Is different pleasant sweet-sour taste, with slightly perceptible notes of nutmeg and without astringency.

The evaluation given during the tasting 4.5 points.

Description of the chemical composition of pear variety "Nika":

For more information about the pear variety "Nika" can be in the photo below:




Specifications

The variety has a high and stable yield. Fruiting trees start from 5-6 years of life and bring an annual harvest. Take off the ripe fruit around the end of September.

Pear hardiness is highif you take the average winter temperature of the Moscow region. But in more northern regions there may be slight frosting.

After them are trees well restored and do not reduce yield.

At a temperature of -38 ° C in special artificial conditions, the bark and cambium did not freeze over. Damage to the xylem was 0.6 points.

Variety is partially self-fertilized. If there is only one tree on the plot, it will yield one third of its normal volume.

Only in the presence of a number of pollinators of other varieties can you significantly increase the yield.

Planting and care

  • Landing
    For planting pears the best time of year is considered autumn. Place must be selected sunny and very spacious. Although “Nika” is not a vigorous tree, it still requires a lot of space for the full development of fruiting.

After choosing a place, prepare a pit for landing. Immediately plant a tree can not, prepare a hole at least a week.

Its size must match one meter in diameter and about 78–80 cm deep. Depending on the type of soil in the pit contribute potassium phosphate fertilizers and humus in the right proportions.

Before planting the seedling, a stake is driven into the hole, which should subsequently be raised 70–80 cm above the ground.

Then you need to carefully lower the tree there, straightening the roots on the sides.

At the same time you need to follow so that the root collar protrudes 5–6 cm above the ground. After this, the pit is covered with the remaining earth.

A small ditch should be made around the tree, which will retain water when watering from spreading. After that, slowly shed a seedling two buckets of water and humus humus.Watering
Just planted tree needs in abundant and frequent watering until its roots are finally taken.

Then you need a tree water no more than three times in summerexcept for special weather conditions.

It is necessary to water a pear very carefully. She is does not tolerate cold water from the tap and sharp watering. It is better to pre-hold the water in barrels so that it can warm up.

You also can not pour a bucket of water under the tree at once, otherwise the roots will be washed away, and the pear may die. Some gardeners dig up a trench leading to a tree and pour water over itwhich in this case comes slowly and systematically.

After watering the ground around the pear you need a little loosen to avoid crust formation on a surface. Loosening provides the roots with access to oxygen. Care and pruning
It is erroneously considered that the landing process is the most important.

Equally important is the competent care of a young tree. One of the steps necessary care is pruning.

One-year-old tree is cut so that it reaches a height of 45-50 cm. Thus, an intensive growth of the lower branches is launched.

When a tree reaches a certain size, usually 4–5 years of life, can be thinned crown and shortening the branches.

Thin out the crown for a better supply of sunlight, which pears love so much. Shortening the branches is necessary for the formation of a correct and beautiful crown.

Usually remove all the wrong growing and extra branchesby acting sharp shears. Cut down the branches on the ring so that there is no stumps left. Places pruning need to paint or garden putty.

Nick’s pear doesn’t require any special shelter high frost resistance. An exception may be in the form of shelter cover for the winter and falling asleep to the roots of mulch and snow.

But such measures can be taken in areas with a harsh climate.

Fertilizers are applied only from the second year of planting. sapling Most suitable for pears peat and humus.

They should be mixed with the ground and poured into a trench around the tree during watering.

Diseases and pests

Pear "Nika" possesses complex disease resistancesuch as scab, bacterial burn, rust, antomosporiosis and nodule.

For the prevention of other diseases and pest damage comply with a number of conditions:

  • Timely application of mineral and organic fertilizers will make the soil healthier and impossible for the development of pathogens.
  • Excess moisture in the soil provides a favorable environment for the development of many diseases.
  • In the spring and autumn, the removal of dry and diseased branches will help to improve the tree.
  • Burning foliage and destroying carrion, as well as digging the soil around a tree, can destroy most of the parasites wintering in the leaves or directly in the ground.

  • Lime whitewash will protect the tree from rodents and some pests.
  • It is also very important to conduct regular inspection of the tree for diseases or damage by parasites. When the first signs appear, the tree is treated with special preparations for each disease or pest.
  • The “Nika” pear variety is quite young and is undergoing tests, but it has already gained great popularity due to its resistance to frost and diseases, as well as the magnificent taste of dessert fruits.

    Description of pear varieties "Nika"

    The height of the tree varieties "Nick" average, and the growth rate itself - the average. The crown of the tree is round in shape with rare, firmly fused branches. The shoots of a tree of this variety are brown in color with a smooth texture. Leaves rich green color, smooth with a glossy shine.

    Fruits are rather large in size, the weight of the fruit of the Nika pear reaches 200 g. The fruit is a truncated conical streamlined shape. The skin of the fruit is of medium density, with a smooth texture and glossy shine, which is provided by a waxy coating.

    The color of the fruit varies from the degree of maturity: for example, during the period of removable maturity, the color is green-red with a predominance of green, during consumer maturity - yellow-red with a predominance of red with a brownish tinge.

    The fruit is kept on a short curved stem that is located in a small, narrow funnel. The flesh is fine-grained, juicy, not granulated, with a sweet-sour taste and a pleasant aroma.

    The chemical composition of the variety "Nika":

    • the total amount of sugars - 10.2%
    • Vitamin P - 122 mg / 100 g,
    • Vitamin C - 6.2 mg / 100 g,
    • dry substances - 15.7%,
    • titrated acids - 0.40%.

    Pros and cons varieties

    One of the main advantages of the variety is a stable and fairly abundant yield of pear "Nika". The first fruits on the tree appear 5-6 years after planting.

    The undeniable advantage of the Nika pear is the high frost resistance of the tree, which makes it attractive for growing in almost all regions of the country. An important fact in favor of the cultivation of this fruit tree is a good transportability of Nick pear.

    Another positive feature of the Nika pear variety is its good disease resistance, as well as a very high-quality dessert taste.

    The disadvantages of this variety are much less than the merits among them, partial self-fertility of the variety, the need for regular pruning, as well as the rather slow period of ripening of the fruit of the Nika pear.

    How to choose a seedling when buying

    Often we have to buy fruit trees in stores or in flower markets. In order for seedlings of pear varieties "Nika" to take root well, it is necessary to choose them correctly.

    The first thing you need to pay attention to - seedling appearance: It must be clean and in no case have any signs of dryness or lethargy.

    It is better to buy seedlings that have turned no more than 2 years old; it is quite simple to find out such: they have not fully formed the crown.

    How to choose and prepare a place for a pear

    The quality and quantity of the pear harvest depends to a greater extent on the observance of the rules of agrotechnology of the pear variety "Nika". These rules begin with the selection and preparation of a place for planting a pear.

    This is wrong, because in the shade the growth of a pear can slow down and the quality of the harvest will decrease. For pear varieties "Nika" is best to choose a well-lit, sunny, well-warmed place.

    It is important that the pear grows in a free, rather large area, because, despite the average size of the tree, it needs quite a lot of space for full development.

    Before planting a pear, you need to prepare a place for it. Start doing this in a week after landing. The diameter of the pit for planting should be at least 1 meter, and the depth - 70-80 cm.

    When digging a hole, it is better to leave the upper ground: it will be needed for planting a tree, while the deep earth will not be useful. Before you begin the process of planting, the earth is fed with potash-phosphate fertilizers and organic matter in the right ratio.

    Fertilizers are connected to the ground, dug from above, and fall asleep in a hole. This substrate is poured with a solution of hydrated lime (2 cups per 10 liters of water). In this form, the pit is left for a week.

    Step-by-step process of planting seedlings

    The best time for planting seedlings will be the end of September - the beginning of October (the pear will have time to adapt and gain strength before the cold weather) or the end of April - the beginning of May (until the leaves start to bloom).

    Planting pear varieties "Nika" is best done in a pair with someone, because the process is quite simple, but you need to do everything in a complex.

    How to conduct watering pear "Nika"

    Especially careful and abundant watering tree requires immediately after planting. The seedling is watered often until the roots take root to the end. In summer, the tree is watered once a month.

    It is impossible to pour water directly under the tree, otherwise the roots will be washed away and the pear will die. It is better to dig a small ditch around the tree and pour water into the trench. For irrigation, it is better to use warmed-up separated water, because a tree can get sick from a sharp stream of cold water.

    In order to avoid the formation of a crust around the tree, after watering the soil is better loosened, in addition, thanks to this procedure, the roots will breathe better.

    What and when to feed pears

    The root system of the pear is hidden quite deeply, and therefore the feeding of the Nika pear is often superficial. When planting, the tree is fertilized for the first time, bringing organic fertilizer into the pit.

    The following feeding is carried out in the fall. During this period, manure and compost are used and they mulch the soil around the tree.

    In the spring and summer, during the period of the most active growth of the tree, the pear needs a large amount of nitrogen, which contributes to the development of the tissues of the tree. In June, potash substances and phosphorus can be added to the soil - this will strengthen the wood.

    If the soil in your area is acidic, from time to time it is necessary to feed the pear with preparations containing calcium, or lime or ashes can be used as a substitute. With solutions of these substances it is necessary to water a tree.

    Literate pruning pears

    The first pruning is performed when the tree is already 1 year old. At this point, the young tree is cut in such a way that it reaches no more than 50 cm in height. This activates the growth of the lower branches.

    At 4-5 years of growth, the crown of the pear is thinned to improve access to light and the branches are shortened to give the crown a beautiful regular shape.

    Pruning should be done with a very sharp object, “on the ring,” and only those branches that grow incorrectly and shade the rest should be removed. All places of cuts must be lubricated with garden pitch or special putty.

    When to harvest and how to store the harvest of pear varieties "Nika"

    Sort "Nika" refers to winter varieties of pears and that is why it is very attractive for cultivation in the garden plot, despite its "youth." The optimal time for picking fruit is the end of September - the beginning of October.

    It is important not to overdo the pears on the tree, so that they do not over-sleep and are better kept. Better stored fruit collected in the period of removable maturity, the color of which is green-brown.

    An important sign of the "readiness" of the fruit to be harvested is that it easily detaches from the stem. A sign of ripeness will also be the elasticity of the pear: if the fruit becomes soft, it will not be stored.

    It is better to keep NIKA pears in a cool visit with high humidity. In a special container (it is better to use boxes made of natural materials) lay out paper or shavings on the bottom, and on top - fruits in a staggered way or diagonally.

    During the storage of pears, it is necessary from time to time to “examine” the fruits, and if you notice rot or damage, these pears must be picked up from the common box.

    Preparing for winter young seedlings

    Despite the fact that the pear "Nika" tree is frost-resistant, young saplings need shelter. At the end of October, the tree must be covered with a layer of mulch, it will “warm” the root system. For this, straw, sawdust or humus will do.

    With the onset of frost, you need to cover the pear trunk with agrotextile - a special fabric that perfectly passes moisture and light, and also has a "heating" effect. From above, the seedling needs to be covered with snow, and the more snow you put on the seedling (of course, not so much as to cover the tree with the top), the warmer the pear will be.

    If you do not have agrotextiles, you can use fir branches. The youngest and lowest shoots can be bent to the ground, the snow will “shelter” them, and this will increase the quality and quantity of the crop.

    Resistance of pear varieties "Nika" to diseases and pests

    “Nika” is very rarely ill, and if some preventive measures are taken, then there will be no problems at all.

    • In time to make mineral fertilizers and organic matter, it will help the tree to become stronger and easier to endure all possible diseases.
    • Do not overmoisten the soil, because a moist environment contributes to the development of fungal microorganisms.
    • Timely pruning and cleaning near the tree. This will save the plant from possible parasites and fungi that live in heaps of leaves and on diseased shoots.
    • Lime whitewash that protects the tree from insects.

    If you have already noticed the first signs of disease: spots and brows on the leaves, damage on the shoots and kidney rot, you must treat the tree with fungicides and repeat the treatment after 7 days.

    If you notice a white bloom or a spider web on the inside of the leaf, the pear must be treated with insecticides. Also in the fight against insects in the first stages will help the soap solution, they need to spray the plant.

    As you know, a pear can bear fruit for about 100 years. Pear varieties "Nika" - unpretentious and very attractive for growing in the garden tree, and therefore now that you have learned the basic rules of growing a tree and will stick to them, your tree will delight you for many years.

    Growing up

    In the fruiting plants come in 4-5 years after planting. Frost resistance is high, down to -38ºС, which is quite enough for trouble-free cultivation at the latitude of Moscow. North of the plant can freeze, so they need shelter trunk and forks of skeletal branches. The ends of the shoots are restored well.

    From fungal diseases, Nika is the best to resist scab and entomosporiosis. In addition to general health measures: the collection of fallen leaves, whitewash bobbed, timely sanitary pruning and regular dressings, trees should be inspected periodically. This will allow time to notice signs of trouble and process chemicals.

    Pears of this variety require annual pruning, which keeps them "in good shape." Otherwise, the crown may become bare, and the fruits - shallow. Gardeners call this feature the main disadvantage. Thin out the branches in spring, place the slices covered with garden pitch or paint.

    Planting seedlings

    Nick should be planted in an open and well-lit area. It is relatively undemanding to soils, but does not like overmoistening. Due to partial self-infertility, the variety needs planting next to a pollinator that blooms at the same time.

    In order for the trees to take root well, it is necessary to prepare the planting pits in advance and seriously approach the choice of seedlings. It is better to take one or two-year copies. High-quality planting material has several elastic and flexible main roots, which are directed in different directions, and the smaller roots cover them. If you have experience, you can plant a cutting in the crown of a tree of another variety.

    According to reviews, Nika is an excellent pear for the middle band, it is suitable for both home and country cottages, and for farming. It should be borne in mind that winter forms, such as those described, require more warm days per year than summer and autumn. Otherwise, especially during cold and rainy September, they do not gain taste and may disappoint the owner.

    Nick's pear: a description of agrotechnical rules

    The variety is not demanding to growing conditions, although it develops better in well-lit sunshine (but not under the scorching sun) places with permeable, drained, fertile loamy soil. Pear moisture-loving, but the stagnation of water and excessive moisture can not tolerate. Therefore, special attention when choosing a site for landing pay for the presence of groundwater: they should not be on the site. The most preferred for planting are places on the southern, south-western and western sides of the garden.

    You can plant a pear in the fall or spring. Planting pits are prepared in advance: for spring planting in the fall or 3-4 weeks in the spring. The surface fertile soil layer is mixed with humus (rotted manure), wood ash and mineral potassium phosphate fertilizers. This earthy mixture is filled in the pits. When planting, the seedling is positioned so that the root neck of the plant is just above (2-3 cm) soil level. The planted young pear Nicka generously watered.

    Care culture

    A pear tree, especially a young plant, should receive quality care, because fruit formation depends on it. Nick's pear is no exception. Young trees require shelter or winter: trunks are warmed, wrapped with straw, paper, roofing material. The soil in pristvolnyh circles periodically weed and loosened.

    Needs abundant watering - several times in spring and summer. In long dry periods, watering the tree more often, focusing on weather conditions. The most productive for pears is sprinkling.

    Fertilization and pruning

    Begin to feed the plant from the second year after planting. They fertilize a tree in spring and autumn, but if necessary (small growth of shoots) they do it in summer.

    Organic supplements (humus, compost, rotted manure) are applied every three years (10 kg / 1 m 2), and mineral - annually (15 g of urea and 25 g of superphosphate and potash fertilizers per 1 m 2). Fertilizers are applied to the soil pristvolnyh circles in a dry form or dissolve them in water for irrigation.

    Mandatory procedure on which the decorativeness of the tree and fruit productivity depend is pruning. It is carried out annually, forming the central conductor and the main skeletal branches. In addition, the necessary sanitary pruning, which removes weak, broken and growing inside, in the center of the crown branches of such a culture, like Nick's pear. Reviews of gardeners confirm the tremendous importance of pruning for this fruit tree.

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    Features of planting and cultivation.

    1. General information about pear. Useful properties of pear.

    The composition of the pear includes a large amount of nutrients - sugar (fructose, glucose, sucrose), fiber, organic acids (citric, malic and others), pectins, tannins, enzymes, phytoncides, flavonoids, vitamins A, E, C, P, PP, group B, macro- and microelements such as: iron, calcium, potassium, iodine, copper, magnesium, molybdenum, fluorine, phosphorus, zinc and other mineral substances.

    Pears help strengthen the immune system, have a tonic effect. Both dried and fresh pears, have antitussive and antipyretic effects, help to fight colds. Pears are good for the cardiovascular system, they strengthen the walls of blood vessels, improve the composition of the blood, calm the heartbeat. Regular use of pears favorably affects the digestive system, improves intestinal motility, has a fixing effect and antimicrobial action, helps to eliminate toxins. Pears are useful for people with diabetes and pancreatic dysfunction. Pears help stimulate the liver, kidneys and bladder. Pear broths help to fight inflammatory diseases, urolithiasis and other ailments, have a diuretic effect. Pears and pear compote are excellent therapeutic and prophylactic agents against prostatitis. As a preventive measure, men are advised to regularly drink pear drinks (teas and compotes). Pears have a positive effect on the nervous system, raise mood, help to cope with stress and depression. Experts recommend fresh and dried pears include in the diet of people with overweight. It is worth eating pears to people engaged in heavy physical labor, as they help relieve tension in the muscles.

    2. Choosing a place for a pear.

    - The pear requires a well-lit place. Otherwise, a decrease in the sugar content of the fruit and a general decrease in yield is possible.

    - Pear does not tolerate water stagnation. If at the site there is a possibility of flooding the tree, if possible, drainage should be done or planted on a hill. Otherwise, the tree will have poor development or even its death. The groundwater level should be at least 2-2.5 m.

    - 2. Pear grows best on sandy-black earth, it is also possible loamy or sandy (with proper care, that is, active and annual fertilization). On clay soil the pear most likely will not develop. In this case, a good landing pit is required. Soil acidity should be low - pH 5.6-6.0.

    3. Planting pears and care.

    - Pear seedling should not be buried when planted in the ground. The root neck (the place of transition of the root to the trunk) should be 5-7 cm above ground level.

    - If you bought a seedling with a bare root, then it is necessary to immediately tear off 90% of the leaves, leaving several leaves on each branch. When buying a seedling in the spring, you can immediately prune the branches. You can not cut the roots. The more they will have a young tree, the faster it will take root. The roots can only straighten.

    - Almost all varieties of pears growing in the Moscow region are considered to be self-fruitless, that is, they need pollen from another plant to set fruits. Accordingly, you should bear this in mind and if you or the neighboring site do not have another tree (another pear variety), you should buy it immediately. Even in samoplodnyh varieties significantly increases the yield with the appearance of pollinator.

    - The area of ​​nutrition of one pear tree depends on the stock: strong-growing rootstocks - 20-25 square meters. at middle rootstocks 12-15 sq.m.

    - When planting a pear, either organic fertilizer (horse humus or humus), or superphosphate - 1 kg or 1.5 kg of phosphate rock, sulfuric acid potassium -150 g or wood ash - 800 g, ammonium nitrate - 80 year

    Further feeding. Fertilization is carried out at the rate of 1 square meter of fertilized tree area. Approximate doses of mineral fertilizers: ammonium nitrate - 15-25 g, urea - 10-20 g, superphosphate - 40-60 g, phosphate rock - 30-40 g, potassium sulfate - 20-25 g, potassium chloride - 15-20 g , wood ash - 700 g, complex fertilizers: ammophos - 70-80 g, nitroammofosk -70-80 g. When autumning it should be WITHOUT nitrogen content. In rich lands, top dressing is often not necessary, and on poor, sandy soils, fertilizer must be applied annually.

    - In the first year after planting, it is recommended to cut off 80-100% of flowers. This is necessary for the best survival of the tree. In the future, it is necessary to cut off half of the crop at the stage of "greenfinches" - only the laid fruit, several centimeters in diameter. This operation is called yield regulation. Thanks to it, the fruits remaining on the tree during ripening will be larger, sweeter, and the tree will be better prepared for winter. In addition, it is thus possible to at least partially overcome the periodicity - the fruiting of the tree in a year.

    - Watering pears should be carried out 4-5 times a month at the rate of one bucket of water per adult tree twice a day (possible in the morning and in the evening). Good watering is very important in the period July-August, when there is fruiting, and at the same time on the bushes are laid flower buds, forming the harvest of the next year. With a lack of moisture in this period possible yield losses in the current and next year. Watering should be completed in August, otherwise there may be a lingering growth of shoots, which can adversely affect the hardiness of the tree. However, in the dry year it is necessary to continue watering, so that the tree is saturated with moisture. Irrigation mode should be adjusted depending on the weather. On soils in high groundwater levels, it is necessary to carefully consider the issue of irrigation, as the pear does not tolerate flooding.

    - Pear quite cold-resistant culture. However, in order to protect the young tree from the early and severe frosts and snowless winters, it is recommended to mulch horse humus around the tree circle, and also to wrap the stem with a covering material or nylon tights (the material should not allow water to pass through ). This method can be used in the future as a replacement whitewash.

    - To combat pests such as mice or hares, use the aforementioned pantyhose, and preferably a special net from rodents.

    - Pristvolny circle is required when growing pears. It should not be planted any plants, it must be kept clean of weeds, constantly loosen. If desired, you can separate the area around the circle of the trunk from the lawn with curb tape (you cannot use iron sheets or concrete products for these purposes as in the photo). To improve the winter hardiness of the tree, autumn is possible horse mulch mulching (5 cm thick layer).

    4. Pruning pears (briefly).

    With proper pruning, you can not only regulate the yield of the tree and the sugar content, the size of the fruit, but also save it from disease.

    - A pear is usually harder to prune than an apple tree.

    - When planting a branch of a young sapling pear cut by one third. This will help him to start bookmarking the crown faster.

    - Pear pruning should be carried out annually in early spring before bud break (usually April month). We do not recommend piercing pruning in late autumn.

    - When a branch is completely trimmed, the cut is made at the very base (cut to the ring) - do not leave hemp.

    - Branches with fruits that go down to the ground and even lie on it should be removed.

    - It is necessary to thin out the tree annually to increase the yield and prevent the appearance of diseases and pests.

    - Of the young shoots should be left only strong and upright. Weak and crooked shoots should be removed. Do not confuse strong escape with a top. Such shoots are most often cut off completely, although even a good branch can be formed from them.

    - You can not take and cut off at once a lot of shoots, since for a tree it will be a very big shock. Not more than 1/4 of the total mass of the branches.

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    Description of pear varieties "Nika"

    Высота дерева сорта «Ника» средняя, и сам темп роста — средний. The crown of the tree is round in shape with rare, firmly fused branches. The shoots of a tree of this variety are brown in color with a smooth texture. Leaves rich green color, smooth with a glossy shine.

    Плоды довольно крупного размера, масса плодов груши «Ника»достигает 200 г. Плод усеченно-конической обтекаемой формы. The skin of the fruit is of medium density, with a smooth texture and glossy shine, which is provided by a waxy coating.

    The color of the fruit varies from the degree of maturity: for example, during the period of removable maturity, the color is green-red with a predominance of green, during consumer maturity - yellow-red with a predominance of red with a brownish tinge.

    The fruit is kept on a short curved stem that is located in a small, narrow funnel. The flesh is fine-grained, juicy, not granulated, with a sweet-sour taste and a pleasant aroma.

    The chemical composition of the variety "Nika":

    • the total amount of sugars - 10.2%
    • Vitamin P - 122 mg / 100 g,
    • Vitamin C - 6.2 mg / 100 g,
    • dry substances - 15.7%,
    • titrated acids - 0.40%.

    How to conduct watering pear "Nika"

    Especially careful and abundant watering tree requires immediately after planting. The seedling is watered often until the roots take root to the end. In summer, the tree is watered once a month.

    It is impossible to pour water directly under the tree, otherwise the roots will be washed away and the pear will die. It is better to dig a small ditch around the tree and pour water into the trench. For irrigation, it is better to use warmed-up separated water, because a tree can get sick from a sharp stream of cold water.

    In order to avoid the formation of a crust around the tree, after watering the soil is better loosened, in addition, thanks to this procedure, the roots will breathe better.

    When to harvest and how to store the harvest pears varieties "Nika"

    Sort "Nika" refers to winter varieties of pears and that is why it is very attractive for cultivation in the garden plot, despite its "youth." The optimal time for picking fruit is the end of September - the beginning of October.

    It is important not to overdo the pears on the tree, so that they do not over-sleep and are better kept. Better stored fruit collected in the period of removable maturity, the color of which is green-brown.

    An important sign of the "readiness" of the fruit to be harvested is that it easily detaches from the stem. A sign of ripeness will also be the elasticity of the pear: if the fruit becomes soft, it will not be stored.

    It is better to keep Nika pears in a cool visit with high humidity. In a special container (it is better to use boxes made of natural materials) lay out paper or shavings on the bottom, and on top - fruits in a staggered way or diagonally.

    During the storage of the pear, it is necessary from time to time to “examine” the fruit, and if you notice rot or damage, such pears must be collected from the common box.

    Resistance pear varieties "Nika" to diseases and pests

    “Nika” is very rarely ill, and if some preventive measures are carried out, then there will be no problems at all.

    • In time to make mineral fertilizers and organic matter, it will help the tree to become stronger and easier to endure all possible diseases.
    • Do not overmoisten the soil, because a moist environment contributes to the development of fungal microorganisms.
    • Timely pruning and cleaning near the tree. This will save the plant from possible parasites and fungi that live in heaps of leaves and on diseased shoots.
    • Lime whitewash that protects the tree from insects.

    If you have already noticed the first signs of disease: spots and brows on the leaves, damage on the shoots and kidney rot, you must treat the tree with fungicides and repeat the treatment after 7 days.

    If you notice a white bloom or a spider web on the inside of the leaf, the pear must be treated with insecticides. Also in the fight against insects in the first stages will help the soap solution, they need to spray the plant.

    As you know, a pear can bear fruit for about 100 years. The pear of the Nika variety is an unpretentious and very attractive tree for growing in the garden, and therefore now that you have already learned the basic rules for growing a tree and will stick to it, your tree will delight you for many years.

    Characteristics of the tree

    Nick's pear is a medium growth tree characterized by a mixed type of fruiting on annual and perennial branches. The tree of Nicky is distinguished by a spherical crown unusual for a pear, with a rare and irregular arrangement of branches.

    The shoots are of medium thickness, smooth, without pubescence, with small lentils. The bark is brown, the leaves are pointed-oval, smooth, slightly curved. Skeletal branches firmly attached to the trunk and depart from him almost at a right angle.

    Pollinator varieties

    Nika is partly a self-fertile variety, but it requires pollinating trees for stable and effective fruiting. It is noticed that separately growing Nick shows only a third of his real yield.

    Poll Nick any varieties of pears that bloom with her at the same time, and preferably, fruiting at the same time. These are winter varieties such as Yakovlevskaya, Bere Russkaya, Chudesnitsa, Fairy.

    Lifespan

    Nick cultivar recently bred, and the maximum lifespan of a tree has not been studied.

    It is known that pears planted according to all the rules on well warmed up areas without stagnant moisture bear up to 50 years.

    In order for Nika to bear fruit for a long time, she needs periodic pruning and good care.

    Winter hardiness

    Pear is a heat-loving tree, so the most delicious and delicate varieties grow in the southern regions. Nick is an exception to their rules: its frost resistance reaches –38 ° C. Under artificial freezing to this mark, freezing of the bark and cambium was not observed.

    Gardeners rated Nika's winter hardiness: the variety quickly spread throughout Russia and the CIS. From the parent - Talgar beauty grade inherited resistance to dry weather.

    Nika is unpretentious, resistant to disease - her advantages are numerous.

    Description of the fetus

    Pears of a grade of Nika please with juicy, bright coloring. In addition to the presentation, the fruit has a wonderful taste. The removable ripeness of the fruits occurs in the middle - second half of September. The fruits of Niki can be stored in the conditions of a cooled fruit storage facility for up to 100 days. Fruits are transportable, they can be transported over long distances.

    Calorie content

    Fruits of pear varieties Nika have high nutritional value, they accumulate quite a lot of sugar. They contain (per 100 g):

    • sugars - 10.2%,
    • dry soluble substances - 15.7%,
    • ascorbic acid - 6.2 mg,
    • P-active compounds - 122 mg,
    • titrated acids - 0.4%.

    The fruits of Niki are able to compete with the famous southern varieties. The flesh of the fruit is juicy, buttery, without granules (granulation). The taste is harmonious sweet-sour with aromatic nutmeg notes, pear tartness is absent. Nicky's tasting score is 4.5 points, this is a high figure.

    Fetus size

    "Nika" gives conical fruits of large size, weighing 150-200 grams. During ripening, the fruit has a greenish color with a red blush that occupies most of the surface. By the period of consumer maturity pears turn yellow, blush acquires a brownish tint. The skin is smooth and shiny. The stem is small, curved, shallow funnel, saucer almost absent. Small heart, brown seeds in closed chambers.

    Planting, growing and care

    Planting Nick's pear in your garden should provide a decent place for the tree: well lit, heated, without stagnation of groundwater.

    The composition of the soil Nick variety is not demanding, but it should be noted that the pear tree does not tolerate bogging the soil.

    The best soils for growing Niki recognized loam and black soil. Heavy clay soils improve the introduction of compost and sand, hydrated lime. In damp places, the pear is planted in an embankment raised to 0.5 meters.

    Observing the requirements of the pear to the place of growth, you need the following:

    1. Choose a place for landing on a sunny, raised area. Nearby must be at least one pollinator tree of another variety.
    2. Prepare an advance pit (for spring planting the place is being prepared in autumn). The depth and width of the pit is 80 - 100 cm.
    3. The pit is filled with nutrient soil (manure, compost mixed with soil), wood ash and superphosphate are added.

    The pear can be planted both in the spring, and in the fall. The best time for autumn planting is the first decade of October. At this time, the seedling has time to take root before the onset of sustained frost.

    The timing of spring planting depends on the condition of the seedling. Trees with an open root system must be planted before bud break, i.e. during the month of April. Saplings in containers can be planted throughout May and even June.

    Trees with open leaves in the first week after planting should be pritenit!

    Technology and agricultural technology

    Planting pear technology Nick is no different from other varieties of pears.

    1. In the center of the pit set strong count for garter sapling.
    2. On a dirt mound sapling set, the roots gently work the sides of the knoll.
    3. The root neck rises 5-7 cm above the level of the soil (since the earth will subsequently settle!)
    4. Straightened roots sprinkled with soil, the soil is gently compacted. A small earthen roller is constructed around the pit.
    5. 2 buckets of water are poured into the pit, Further, the trunk circle is mulched with humus.

    Distance between trees

    Despite the fact that Nika is a compact variety, the pear needs sufficient space for lighting and crown growth. The distance between the trees depends on the shape of the crown and the strength of the stock:

    • for trees with rounded crowns - 7 m between the rows and 4 m in the row,
    • for flat crowns - 5 m between the rows, 3-4 m in a row,
    • for pears on dwarf rootstocks - 4 m between the rows, 2 m in a row.

    The main care for Nick's pear is the timely watering and crown formation.

    Watering Nike is necessary in the following cases:

    • seedling after landing - weekly
    • during the formation of buds, if spring is dry,
    • in hot summer months.

    Remove foliage and plant debris from under the trees in order to deprive the pests of their habitat. For the winter, the bases of the trunks are wrapped in agrofabrics - this will save the bark from mice and rabbits.

    The first feeding of the pear is carried out one year after planting: in the fall, the near-stem circle is mulched with manure.

    In the spring the pear needs nitrogen fertilizers for active growth. In April, you can make granular fertilizers - urea, nitrate. Before fertilizing the soil is loosened, ideally, top dressing is applied before the rain.

    During the flowering period, the tree is watered with a solution of mullein (1 part per 10 parts of water), chicken manure (1 to 20) or urea (100 g per plant).

    Since June, the pear is fed not only with nitrogen, but also with phosphate and potash fertilizers - solutions of superphosphate, potash nitrate. Fertilizer consumption - 25-30g per bucket of water. Spring-summer fertilizing can be carried out by root, sprinkling the tree.

    Phosphorus and potassium in the middle of summer contribute to the growth and ripening of fruits, strengthening the tissues of shoots. Instead of mineral fertilizers, you can water the wood with a solution of ash.

    Since August, nitrogen fertilization is stopped, so as not to provoke the growth of shoots. Feed only phosphorus and potassium, it will help prepare the tree for the winter.

    Rejuvenation

    Rejuvenation pear Nick - an important point varietal agrotechnology.

    The signal for rejuvenation is chopping fruit. Skeletal branches are cut on the young branch, leaving no knots, sawn cuts are processed by garden pitch.

    Grade Nick required annual pruning. Shoots are cut to one third the length, but not less than 10 cm. Pruning stimulates the branching of young shoots and fruit formations. The procedure is carried out in the spring before the start of sap flow or in the autumn after the leaves fall. Sections are treated with garden barb.