Tomato Siberian early ripening is suitable for growing in all areas of high-risk farming, which makes this variety very popular in the middle zone of our country, as well as in the northern regions.
Description of tomato varieties Siberian early
Tomato called "Siberian early" is determinant in the type of growth and developmenttherefore, its description of the variety suggests stopping the growth and development of the above-ground part at a certain moment, as well as maintaining the height of the bush at a level of 0.4–0.8 m, which makes it possible to grow this vegetable in low greenhouses. The plant is quite powerful and has well leafy stems.
This early, or precocious, variety is able to form the first full harvest of ripe fruit in about four months after the first shoots. It was derived by experts of the experimental vegetable-potato breeding station as a result of the cross-crossing of hybrid forms No. 114 and No. 534/1, with subsequent thorough selection. The variety with a long history, time-tested and receives fairly good ratings and reviews of vegetable growers.
Ripe fruits are given a positive characteristic not only by specialists, but also by domestic gardeners, growing this variety in both open and protected ground:
- ripe tomatoes are large in size, the average weight can vary in the range of 60-110 g,
- the shape of the fruit is round and flat, with weak ribbing,
- the surface at the stage of full aging is markedly red,
- the average number of nests varies from 5 to 12,
- the flesh is very pleasant, with a pronounced tomato flavor,
- high yield does not depend on weather factors in the cultivation region,
- characterized by high solids content.
The value of the variety is represented by simultaneous yield, early ripeness and versatility of fruit use. Tomatoes of this variety are used not only fresh and for the preparation of vitamin salads, but also in the manufacture of juices, tomato sauce and pasta.
Features of pasynkovaniya and care
Pysynki are parts of the main stem and do not have significant differences in growth and development. On the stepsons not only leaves are formed, but fruit brushes are also laid. Such agrotechnical technique as pasynkovanie, plays a very important role in the formation of the aerial parts of the tomato bush and has a positive effect on fruit formation, and in the end, and on indicators of the overall yield of the garden crop:
- additional shoots, or stepchildren, are the result of increased mineral nutrition of the garden crop,
- pasynkovanie tomatoes is a mandatory event, allowing you to adjust the growth of green mass and balance the nutrition of tomato,
- Late stinging is very often the main cause of fruit overloading a tomato bush, which can provoke fruit shredding and a decrease in overall yield indicators,
- inspections of plants for the appearance of stepsons and pasynkovanie recommended at least once a week.
Experienced gardeners do not recommend spending much time on removing stepchildren on a tomato of the variety “Siberian early”. This recommendation is due to the growth of the determinant shrub, where the main shoot is completed with a fruit brush, and removing the stepson can limit the process of fruit formation and cause a decrease in overall yield. Thus, the procedure of pinching is not the main one when growing Siberian Early Ripe, and cultivation of this variety requires attention to be paid to timely watering and feeding, as well as regular weeding and loosening of the soil.
Description and characteristics of the variety
Siberian early ripening is a determinant variety with a restriction on growth in height of about 95 cm. A plant with medium-sized green and dark green leaves. The tomatoes themselves are medium in size, 50-100 g each, in a rounded flat shape with a slightly pronounced ribbing, bright red color. Tastes and flavor of the traditional type. The variety gives a good harvest in greenhouse cultivation - 8-10 kg / m2, in the open ground - 5-8 kg / m2. About 0.9-1.5 kg of tomatoes ripen on a single bush of Siberian early ripening. Among the advantages distinguish:
- easy care
- prolonged fruiting
- vegetables tolerate transportation.
Council It is possible to extend the storage and preserve the quality of tomatoes when transported, if they are neatly and sufficiently tightly put the boxes up with the stalks. It is very important that the fruits are dry. The box is covered with a little pressure. The shelf life in this case is about two months.
If we talk about the shortcomings of tomato, some complain about the moral obsolescence of the variety, as well as its inability to withstand the characteristics of modern derived hybrids.
For planting tomatoes pre-grown seedlings. Prepared seeds are placed in pots or special containers with soil. Planting material can be left from last year or bought, paying attention to product quality and shelf life. Preparation of tomato seeds includes the following work:
- Sorting. Only large healthy sunflower seeds that contain more nutrients are suitable, strong plants grow from them.
- Warming up is necessary if storage was at low temperatures. It is performed 1-1.5 months before landing during the week. The seeds folded in fabric bags are placed on the battery for several days.
- Disinfection. It is believed that many bacteria can even be on the surface of the kernels, so they are subjected to pickling. For the procedure suitable 1% solution of potassium permanganate.
- Soaking in the nutrient solution, biostimulant (for example, Epine, Immunocytophite) according to the instructions, after which the planting material is dried.
- Namachivanie - seeds in a bag are immersed in warm water at room temperature for a maximum of 10-12 hours. Periodically, the liquid is changed, the seeds are taken out every 4 hours so as not to suffocate.
- Pre-germination contributes to the earlier emergence of sprouts, improves entrainment, promises early receipt of fruits. The saucer is covered with wet gauze, laid out the seeds, make sure that the fabric does not dry out, excessive moisture is also not allowed.
- Hardening contributes to increased resistance of tomatoes to adverse weather conditions. The sunflower seeds in a damp cloth are placed on the bottom of the refrigerator for 10-12 hours, kept at 16-20 ° C during the day. Repeat this procedure for several days.
Germinating seeds are planted to a depth of about 1 cm in several pieces in containers for seedlings under room conditions or bred in a greenhouse. As the sprouts and full leaves appear, weak small units are removed. To properly grow, develop and ripen fruits, tomatoes need a well-lit area.
Planting and care
Strong healthy seedlings are planted in open ground when the threat of late frosts disappears, usually at the end of May and beginning of June. When planting in the well, the addition of superphosphate is desirable. For the formation of healthy bushes is important to observe
- indent between plants - 50 cm,
- distance between rows 30-40 cm
Leaving is reduced to regular watering in the late afternoon, after the heat of the day, top dressing and timely loosening of the soil with the cleaning of weeds.
Diseases and pests
Siberian early maturity is slightly susceptible to disease, but you may encounter:
- late blight (help get rid of special drugs, a solution of ordinary salt 10%),
- gray rot (eliminated by fungicides, triazole agents),
- Alternaria, Fusarium (fungicidal preparations are necessary),
- pests: medvedka, aphids, wireworm, whitefly (insecticides help).
The variety of tomatoes Siberian early ripened appeared quite a long time ago, but it proved itself well among gardeners due to unpretentiousness, yield, rich taste, resistance to diseases and cooling. Even without much experience growing vegetables, you can pick a lot of tomatoes and make a big family happy.
Tomato Siberian precocious - description of the variety, photo
One of the most popular cultivars for cultivation in Siberia and the Urals is recognized as Siberian early ripening tomato variety. Consider its description, the characteristics of the fruit, especially agrotechnics in open and protected ground.
Origin of the variety
The cultivar is highly resistant to an unfavorable climate due to the fact that it is developed at a vegetable-potato breeding station located in Western Siberia. Two hybrids with numbers 114 and 534/1 formed the basis of the Siberian early ripening variety. Subsequent generations were repeatedly subjected to individual selection, that is, breeders chose the strongest individuals who took over the best qualities of the parent pair. The zoning of the cultivar was registered in the State Register in 1959. Culture is recommended for cultivation in all regions of the country with the exception of the Black Soil Region, the Caucasus and the Volga region.
The described culture forms dense bushes with a dense deciduous cover. It is characterized by a determinative type of growth of the bush. Plants of this type are limited in growth. After the formation of a certain number of fruit brushes (usually 6-8), the crown is completed. The first inflorescence is located after 8-10 leaves, all subsequent fruit brushes are formed every 2 leaves.
Plant height directly depends on growing conditions. So, in the open ground, its growth rarely exceeds the mark in half a meter. The bush reaches a height of 30-50 cm. When cultivated in a greenhouse, where conditions favor harmonious development, tomato bushes grow to a height of 94 cm. For this variety, a dense planting of deciduous mass on the shoots is characteristic, the stem does not turn into a stem. Leafy plates of a typical “potato” type with color ranging from green to dark green.
In terms of fruiting, the hybrid belongs to the group of early ripening varieties. From full germination to the appearance of scarlet tomatoes is 115-130 days. The hybrid grows well and bears fruit both in open ground and in the greenhouse.
Advantages and disadvantages
Since the cultivar was brought to the zone of risky farming, over several generations it has adapted to the harsh climate. Among the main advantages of the plant gardeners say resistance to cold and adverse climate. Gardeners note that the cultivar brings a good harvest even in rainy summer, because it has resistance to individual diseases caused by high humidity and low temperature background. The plant is unpretentious, undemanding to the soil.
Although the harvest does not have high taste, it has a traditional tomato flavor and a unique aroma. Even modern hybrids can envy this culture. To the indisputable advantages of tomatoes also include a good yield, early ripening of berries, gradual return and test of time.
Many argue that this variety is obsolete and cannot compete in quality with the latest hybrids. This is a very controversial point, because there are supporters who argue that this cultivar is ideal for areas of high risk farming.
The best yields and persistent immunity of young individuals can be achieved with the help of preliminary seed preparation. The procedure includes three points:
- Disinfection with a solution of fungicide or potassium permanganate (1%) for 20-30 minutes, followed by rinsing with clean water.
- Soaking for a day to wake up the embryo involves laying tomato grains on a piece of wet cloth, which is placed in a plastic bag.
- To strengthen the seedlings, the seed should be hardened. At night, put the saucer in the refrigerator and keep it at 25⁰C during the day. Such manipulations are done until sprouts appear (2-3 days).
Capacities and soil for seedlings
Tomatoes bush has a fibrous type of root system, easily and painlessly tolerates a pick. It is possible to grow up seedlings in any capacity - the general box, peat tablets, individual cups, cartridges. The main thing that the container had on the bottom a few holes for the drain of excess fluid.
For the cultivation of seedlings suitable universal soil mixture with a loose structure and a pH level not higher than 6.5 (slightly acidic). In the case of independent production of the substrate, equal shares of peat, sand, garden soil and humus are combined.
How and when to plant seeds
Sowing time depends on the expected growing conditions. If the seedlings at the end of the seedling period will move to the greenhouse, sowing is carried out in late March. When transplanting plants to the garden, planting is shifted to the first half of April.
Seeds are sown in grooves with a depth of at least 10 mm. The spacing between the grains is 2-3 cm, between the grooves - 4-5 cm. Cover the grooves with soil, and arrange transparent cover (glass, film) on the seating container. After 3-5 days at a temperature of 22-25⁰C, the first shoots will appear.
Care of seedlings
The shelter is removed from the container gradually, when all shoots appear above the soil surface. For 4-5 days, the box is placed in cool conditions (15⁰C) so that the tomatoes do not stretch out. During the day, tare is kept under bright diffused lighting or phytolamp at a temperature of 22-25⁰C, and at night the background is reduced to 15-16⁰C.
At the initial stage of cultivation, seedlings are provided with abundant irrigation, preventing overwetting and drying out of the soil. Gradually, the intervals between watering increase. If the seedlings grow in total capacity, after the development of 2–3 of this leaf, they should be smashed into a separate container with a volume of 500-700 ml. During the picking, it is recommended to pinch the central root to stimulate the growth of side branches.
Top dressing with a full mineral complex is applied three times - 10 days after transshipment, 2 weeks later, 10-14 days before transplanting to a permanent place.
Transplant to a permanent place, leaving after disembarkation
Tomatoes are transplanted into the greenhouse from mid-May, having previously disinfected the structure with a sulfur checker or washed out with a solution of bleach. The transfer to the beds is carried out after June 10, when the ground warms up to 15⁰C, and the threat of return frost is over. Tomatoes are heat-loving crops, at first a temporary shelter is required. Tomatoes need a sunny plot with well-drained soil. They dig it up, enriching the necessary amount of organics and minerals.
It is recommended to add 10 g of superphosphate to the planting well, transplant the seedlings by the method of transshipment. The stem can be buried. Landing pattern 50 by 40 cm.
In a greenhouse, tomatoes should be protected from moisture. Top dressing is brought in 14 days after disembarkation. Next, you need to feed tomatoes 2-3 times per season. Cultivation care includes loosening, weeding, mulching. Irrigation is carried out every 4-5 days, increasing the portion of water during the budding and pouring fruit.
Siberian precocious form in three stalks, in a timely manner removing the stepchildren. In the open ground bushes reach a small height, rarely need tying. In the greenhouse, their growth can reach 90 cm, so the plant will need support.
Gardeners do not always respond positively about the variety Siberian early. Some do not like the sour taste of the fruit, others find it obsolete, that is, not able to compete with the latest hybrids in terms of ripening, yield, quality of berries.
Experienced gardeners also note a decline in the quality of seed. Consider a useful review from Vladimir. He tried several times to replenish the stock of seeds by purchasing them from various manufacturers. The gardener claims that there were seeds of a completely different cultivar in the bag. Grown plants differed strikingly from the specimens cultivated from their own inoculum.
Tomato variety Siberian Express - description and characteristics
The variety of tomato Siberian Express refers to the hybrids of the new generation. It is recommended for cultivation in Siberia, as one of the earliest large-fruited tomatoes.
Growth type determinant, shtambovy bush, dense, short (up to 50 cm). The cultivar does not need to tie up and remove the stepsons. Flower brush contains 5-7 berries, not prone to fall. The hybrid belongs to the early ripening group, the first fruits ripen in 85-95 days after the emergence of mass shoots, which is considered an excellent result in the conditions of the risk farming zone.
In addition, the Siberian Express differs shade-tolerance, even with prolonged overcast weather, it is characteristic of long-term fruiting. Vegetables with excellent taste have a long lasting quality. By type of use are universal, suitable for salads and whole-canning.
The bright red fruit reaches a weight of 120-150 g, has a rounded shape, and the ribs are clearly visible near the stem. Благодаря плотной мякоти помидоры пригодны для длительной транспортировки. Количество семенных камер 2—3. Продуктивность составляет 4,5—6 кг с одного квадратного метра посадок.
Особенности агротехники сорта Сибирский экспресс
Агротехника Сибирского экспресса схожа с общими правилами выращивания культуры:
- planting starts in the last decade of March or early April,
- embedment to a depth of at least 10 mm,
- thanks to shade tolerance, seedlings are rarely stretched out, but on cloudy days, shining is recommended,
- picking is carried out at the stage of 1-2 real leaves,
- top dressing should be done 2-3 times during the seedling period. A complete mineral complex is used,
- 10 days before disembarking, they finish hardening,
- seedlings are planted on the bed according to the scheme 30 to 50 cm after the retreat of the return frost. Landing at the age of 60-65 days in the development phase of the first flower brush,
- care includes timely irrigation, 2-3 additional dressing per season, loosening and mulching the soil, weeding,
- Forming a bush is optional.
According to the description, tomato varieties Siberian early and Siberian express have excellent characteristics that allow them to compete with modern hybrids. To enjoy a good harvest, a gardener will have to look for high-quality seed and ensure the right care.
Tomato Siberian early ripening belongs to the determinant type, the height of the bush is from 30 to 90 cm (on average 60 cm). From the moment of appearance of the first shoots to the ripening of tomatoes, it takes from 115 to 130 days. High yields are provided by the formation of tomato bushes Siberian early ripening of two stems. Ripening of tomatoes occurs simultaneously from 5-12 available fruiting inflorescences.
Unfortunately, for other diseases, the variety has a moderate immunity. However, the advantages include the possibility of growing in greenhouse conditions and in open ground.
Features of growing and care
It is known that tomatoes are heat-loving plants, however, the variety “Siberian early ripening” is resistant to the harsh climatic conditions of Russia. This feature was reflected in the features of agrotechnics of this type of tomato.
Let us dwell on it in more detail:
Even before planting, the seeds are “hardened” by placing them (in bundles!) In the refrigerator, as far as possible from the freezer. The procedure should take at least 2 months at a temperature of + 2 + 4 degrees.
However, if this stage was missed, stratification of already swollen seeds in the refrigerator is allowed (at least 20 hours), then in a warm room at a temperature of +18 to +20 degrees.
The material for germination is placed in a nutrient solution of wood ash, then disinfected with manganese and sown in harvested soil. Allowed additional germination of seeds before planting.
Capacities with soil are covered with glass or film and left in a warm room until the first shoots, usually for 7 days. After that, the covering material is removed, the seedlings are transferred to a well-lit place on the balcony in compliance with the temperature regime: a gradual increase from 16 to 22 degrees. After forming a pair of leaves of the plant you need to dive.
Approximately 14 days before planting seedlings in open ground, it must begin to harden. Containers are placed in the shade on the street. At night, tomatoes clean the room warm. Subsequently, the seedlings are left in the penumbra, gradually accustomed to open sunlight.
3-4 days before planting the seedlings should be left on the street, provided that the temperature is not lower than 12 degrees.
When to sow tomatoes "Siberian early"?
Landing in the ground is carried out strictly in 55-60 days after the appearance of sprouts, when there will be 7-9 leaves on the trunk. After heavy watering tomatoes can not touch 7-10 days. When plants adapt, they can be fed and weeded from weeds, spud. You can mulch with dried grass, peat, etc., the layer should be at least 5 cm.
Do I need to pinch tomatoes Siberian early?
Tomatoes “Siberian early ripening” must always be beighed every 4 days, leaving 1 cm peneses, and also tie up the bushes, cut the leaves, but only before the first brush. 30 days before picking the tomatoes from the tops, pinch the tip so that the fruits are larger and fatter.
The fruits of tomato are red in color, round-planed low-ribbed forms of different sizes. Their weight ranges from 60 to 100 g. In one fruit there are up to twelve chambers, dry matter in it is only 7%. Fruits very well withstand transportation. Vitamins A and C, amino acids, carotene, and other trace elements, allow to fill their deficit in humans, formed during the winter. The high competitiveness of the duration of cultivation of Siberian tomatoes, in contrast to its “young” in time to the appearance of fellows, is due to such characteristics as:
- good harvest, tomato is practically not subject to cracking during ripening and transportation. Up to 1.5 kg of tomato can be collected from a bush, and a tomato on an area of 1 square meter can be up to 10 kg. On a bush planted in the open field, one tomato reaches a weight of up to 600 g, and from planted bushes you can collect from 6 to 7 kg of large vegetable per 1 square meter,
- harvested unripe tomatoes can ripen indoors in a bright place and during transport. This is the most attractive of the characteristics of this class,
- duration of fruiting tomato Siberian, time-tested,
- resistance to cold and various vagaries of weather. Here the Siberian immunity of a tomato,
- possibility of fresh use, as well as in the preparation of salads and freshly squeezed. Also, tomatoes are suitable for salting, cooking sauces, pastes, mashed potatoes,
- thanks to the friendly early ripening tomato, they can be collected at once and processed in a short time,
- Tomato is immune to many diseases characteristic of this variety. Resists tobacco mosaic and brown spot.
Where there are pros, there are also disadvantages. Description of the minus varieties:
- Tomato sizes are uneven, especially in unstable weather conditions,
- the variety becomes obsolete in comparison with new species, in particular, in relation to agricultural techniques, general indicators of the size of a tomato, fruiting, and so on,
- the variety is not able to compete with new domestic and foreign hybrids in some of its characteristics.
Description of the features of growing and care
Siberian early ripening tomato is grown in almost all regions of Russia. With the exception of the Central Chernozem region, the Volga region, the North Caucasus. In order to unlock the full potential of this variety, it is necessary to choose a clean soil. It will suit a little sour, light and slightly wet soil. It is recommended to choose a place where legumes, cabbage, onions, and cucumbers grew earlier.
By tradition, before landing in open ground or in a greenhouse, seedlings are first grown. Sowing seeds for seedlings produced from late February to mid-March. The composition of the soil mixture should include peat and humus, the height should be more than 20 cm. Seeds sown to a depth of at least 1 cm. Seedlings should be watered and fed regularly with fertilizers. Before the onset of heat, the shoots must be covered from above with a special material.
When two leaflets grow on shoots, a dive is made. Each seedling is planted in a large well, after adding to it up to 10 g of superphosphate. For a good harvest, seedlings are planted in 4 rows with the tip tilted to the north. The distance between seedlings is not less than 20 cm, and between rows 25-30 cm. It is best to plant grown seedlings in the ground from late May to mid-July. In this case, you can count on a high yield.
During the growth of the bush it is necessary to engage in its formation in 3 stalks. When growing tomato early ripening should be avoided, the leaves contact with each other and the tomato with the ground. To do this, the bushes are tied up with vertical supports. An important condition for growing a variety is to prevent the flowers from shedding. Yield depends on their preservation.. If the lower flowers fall tomatoes stepson over next brush.
When growing seedlings, it is also allowed to plant seeds on a permanent place. If the weather is favorable, this can be done at the end of March. Note the fact that tomatoes, which grew in the open field in the open air through seedlings or seeds, grow larger and tastier.
It is necessary to maintain moderate atmospheric humidity. To do this, you need to water the bushes with warm water after sunset. Also during the growth of tomato and fruit ripening it is necessary to remove weeds and loosen the soil. There are some tomato diseases you may encounter. This is late blight, which can be cured with the help of fungicides or ten percent salt solution.
Another disease is gray rot, you can get rid of it with triazole agents and fungicides. Pests that can harm a tomato: wireworm, bear, aphid, whitefly, nematode. They are destroyed with the help of insecticides.