Tabernemontana (Tabernaemontana) is an evergreen flowering shrub that is a member of the Kutrov family. Tropical and subtropical areas of Africa, America and Southeast Asia are considered the birthplace of the plant. The coastal zone is the main place of its habitat.
Tabernemontana, growing at home, can reach a height of one and a half meters. This plant has oblong, glossy and leathery green leaves with pointed tips. Depending on the type, the flower is up to 20 centimeters long and from 3 to 5 cm wide. The flowers reach 4 centimeters in diameter. Flowers are terry with not pleasant smell of cream and white shade. Flowering occurs all year.
Due to the fact that its leaves are very similar to the leaves of gardenia, they are often confused with each other, but only until the blooming of flowers. Since the bells with corrugated petals at tabernemontana can not be confused with flowers like roses, which has gardenia.
For tavernemontana, it is preferable to be in a room with high humidity. When the air is too dry, periodic spraying is required, for which only distilled water should be used. When caring for this plant, it is worth adhering to the rule - it is better to do the spraying than once more watering.
Waterlogging doesn’t tolerate tabernemontana, and therefore it is necessary to water it moderately in the summertime and limited in the wintertime.
Fertilizers and fertilizers
Tabernemontans feed fertilizers produced for flowering houseplants. This is done every month 2 times in the spring and summer.
Young tabernemontane transplantation is required very often, which must be done several times a year. Adult plants are usually transplanted at intervals of two to three years. For transplantation using a rather loose soil. It is possible to use a mixture of humus leaf soil, sand and peat in equal quantities. This flower can grow well both on weakly acid and weakly alkaline soil. Tabernemontane simply needs good drainage.
Tabernemontana can be multiplied practically at any time. For reproduction, cut tops of the semi-lignified cuttings are used, having a length of approximately 10 centimeters. The cut place must be washed with running water to remove the milky juice from the cut and prevent the plant from clogging up the vessels. Planting cuttings carried out in small pots, covered with plastic wrap.
For rooting should be carried out regular ventilation and maintain a temperature not lower than +22 degrees. Roots should appear in about a month. Rooted cuttings tabernemont very quickly develop and almost immediately bloom.
Diseases and pests
- Chlorosis is one of the most common diseases. To eliminate it, it is necessary to acidify the substrate, process the plant with iron sulfate or iron chelate, add trace elements to the soil as a top dressing.
- The pests of this flower include spider mites and scutes.
- On the reverse side of the leaves, you can sometimes notice very small droplets of white, which subsequently dry out and turn yellow. This phenomenon has no relation to pests. This is the excretion of the glands of the leaves, which occurs as a result of abundant watering and a sharp temperature drop, but without any harm to the plant.
- In the presence of low humidity and high temperature in the room, you can notice "sticking", and then the fall of the not yet opened buds.
Home types of tabernemontans
There are more than 100 types of tabernemontans, in their culture there are much less. Especially popular with modern flower growers are:
- Tabernemontana divaricata - differs densely branched spherical crown with large leaves of rich green color and large white inflorescences. The buds are formed from five petals with corrugated edges. The aroma of flowers is enhanced in the evening and at night. Fruits are oblong dark green with an orange core.
- Tabernemontana crowned - medium-shrub with glossy relief leaves of bright green color and snow-white tassels of inflorescences consisting of large semi-double flowers with a pronounced aroma.
- Tabernemontana is elegant - a small tree with a faint aroma of five-petal non-double flowers.
- Tabernemontana holst - this rare species is distinguished by the original curved petals of white flowers, which are very similar in shape to the propeller.
- Tabernemontana Sanango - is of interest to its petals, which reach a length of 30 cm, and edible fruits.
- Amsonia Tabernemontana - looks very decorative due to blue inflorescences and dark green leaves.
- Tabernemontana variegata - a species represented by a variety of variegated forms.
Optimal conditions for growing in the house
Thermophilic tropical guest, once in the house, does not require special attention and care. For growth and flowering, it needs moisture, light and heat.
In order for the shrub to increase its harmonious crown symmetrically, it needs diffused bright light. He is very fond of the sun, but is afraid of direct sunlight. An unpretentious flower will grow on any window sill, but it will be more comfortable on the east and south sides.
Given the characteristics of the climate in the home of the tabernemontana, at home it needs to create comfort at a level of 20 ° C In winter, temperatures can drop to a maximum of 15 ° C. Hypothermia pot will surely affect its flowering. In the summer, the thermometer may rise to 22 ° C, but no more, because the flower feels discomfort in the heat. To compensate for too warm air will help abundant moisture.
Summer air baths on the balcony will be useful for the culture, and if possible, the pot should be put in the garden. In winter, the plant should be protected from drafts from open vents.
How to care at home
The main care for shrubs is the timely moistening of air and soil in the pot, and the composition of the substrate is important for flowering. Consider all the details in order.
The moisture-loving pot is very important appropriate level of moisture in the room, so water procedures should be taken seriously. Tabernemontana can not survive even a short-term drought. An earthen clod in her pot should only dry out half, and as soon as this happens, we need the next portion of water. In the hot season, weekly provide an evergreen exotic with 2-3 irrigations, and in winter one will be enough. Defend the water beforehand and make sure that it is not cold.
Soil and dressing
Full development of the root system, and accordingly the crown, will be provided by light, moisture-permeable, friable substrates with sufficient nutrients and mild acidity. Ideally, the pH level should not exceed 4.5-5.5. When planting a sprout, a soil mixture is prepared from equal parts of river sand, humus, hard peat, and coniferous soil. Mixes for azaleas and citrus fruits will be suitable from purchased ground for tabernemontane, but they must be half diluted with sand.
Since the culture is very fond of moisture, to prevent stagnation of water and putrefying root diseases, drainage is obligatory in a pot. It is made of expanded clay, which fill the fourth part of the tank. Every month, earthwork requires additional oxidation. To this end, when watering the plant, add a few drops of lemon juice or 2-3 citric acid crystals to the water.
In order that the year-round flowering does not weaken the shrub, twice a month it should be fed with mineral complex fertilizers for flowering. Impeccable reputation with the means: "Pocon", "Florovit", "Etisso", "Bona Forte". Intensive biomass growth will contribute to nitrogen-containing "Emerald".
Young copies of tabernemontans need frequent transplantation. Due to active growth for the year they can be up to 2-3. A more mature pot will need this procedure every three years. For replanting, fresh drainage, substrate and pot are needed a few centimeters more than the previous one in diameter. Traditionally, the plant should be poured abundantly, and when moisture is absorbed, shake out the earthen ball together with the bush. In no case do not need to shake off the old soil and shorten the rhizome. The tuber is put in a new tank for drainage and filled with new soil, watered.
Reproduction at home
To grow a new bush tabernemontana can be from the stalk or from seed. The last option is preferred by avid botanists, since it is not always effective, but in any case requires a lot of time and effort. Another unpleasant result of the seed method - grown specimens, as a rule, lose their varietal characteristics. Therefore, for home conditions, the most suitable is the method of cutting.
Tabernemontana with such a reproduction will inherit all the maternal qualities, and rooting will occur in a short time. In order to get the desired sprout, at any time of the year, cut a 10-centimeter cutting with 2-3 pairs of leaves on a semi-woody healthy stem.
If the stalk will take root in the water, put it in a liter jar of warm filtered water with the addition of powdered activated carbon. If you want the roots to grow immediately in the substrate, prepare a mixture of equal parts of sand and peat, pour it into a plastic container with a lid. In either case, the greenhouse effect will contribute to the early development of the root system. Covering structures will periodically need to be removed, enriching the prevailing microclimate with oxygen. On average, rooting of cuttings will take from 1.5 to 2 months.
How to deal with pests and diseases
Unfortunately, tabernemontana is very sensitive to harmful insects, as a result of the vital activity of which leaves turn yellow, flowers fall off, the bush looks lifeless. Feeding on the juices of this tropical exotica is loved by spider mites, mealybug, aphid, scale insects, whitefly. Insecticides will help to get rid of sucking parasites ("Aktara", "Bi-58 New", "Fufanon").
Among the diseases most often the plant affects chlorosis. It is recommended to fight the problem by periodically oxidizing the soil in a pot (this is also done for preventive purposes), and it will also be necessary to spray the bush with a solution of iron sulphate or Emerald.
But remember, diseases and parasitic insects appear with improper farming techniques. Periodically carefully inspect the leaves of the pot - they will tell you about how he lives with you. If the cause of wilting are not attacking pests, then it is worth reviewing the mode of irrigation and humidification of the air. With a lack of moisture, gluing of petals and shedding them before the start of flowering is possible. Too elongated sprouts and pale foliage scream to you about poor lighting. The reason for the poor development of the flower can be covered in a pot and manifested in the form of root rot. In this case, the plant will need an urgent transplant with the removal of all infected parts.
Good tabernemontana at any time of the year. Its beautiful relief glossy leaves with protruding veins and short petioles protrude in perfect harmony with snow-white flowers, gathered in three to fifteen pieces in the corymboid inflorescences. The charm of flowers complements the wonderful aroma, which is enhanced by the evening. It is often confused with the plant gardenia home.
However, these plants belong to different botanical families and can be distinguished by a simple test: tabernemontana contains milky juice in shoots and leaves, and gardenia does not. In addition, the flowers of the tabernemontans throughout the entire flowering period retain the original color.
The most common in room culture is tabernemontana terry spread wide with amazingly beautiful flowers that reach up to eight centimeters.
Transplant flower tabernemontana
In the spring and summer periods, the plant grows quickly, and therefore the young specimen is rolled over twice a year, without breaking the earthy coma, and the adult once a year. It is better to do this in February, two to three weeks before the formative trim. A new pot should be larger than the previous one by three to four centimeters in diameter. Good drainage at the bottom of the pot is required.
When transplanting, do not damage the roots, and after it for a while, slightly reduce watering and eliminate feeding for one and a half to two months, in order to prevent rotting of broken off roots.
Land for Tabernemontana
Substrate need weak acid. It can be prepared independently from light leafy soil, humus, coarse sand and peat taken in equal quantities. If you are used to using ready-made substrates, mix the lemon and azalea soils equally and add a fifth of the sand or perlite for looseness.
Feeding for fast-growing tabernemontans is very important, because flowering, which lasts about eight months, takes a lot of energy. In the period of growth every ten to fifteen days, feed it, alternating between fertilizers for flowering plants and organic matter.
How to care for tabernemontana.
For successful maintenance, tabernemontane should be given a very bright place. Requires direct sunlight at the beginning or end of the day. With a lack of light, it does not bloom. Place the pot with tabernemontana on the sill of the east or west window. In winter, you can place on the south window. Indeed, at this time the sun's rays can not burn the leaves. In the summer, a light shade at midday hours will be required on the southern windowsill.
For breeding the easiest way to use cuttings. Read more about this method in this article. Perhaps seed reproduction. To do this, you must use a wide capacity. Plant in a mixture of coarse sand and peat in equal proportions. Seed dish should be covered with glass or plastic wrap. Seeds germinate best at temperatures around + 25 ° C. Therefore, this method is suitable in spring and summer.
Pests and diseases.
Subject to the care recommendations, tabernemontana is practically free from disease. In conditions of overmoistening of the substrate, fungal diseases of the roots are possible. For treatment, it is necessary to correct care, transplant it into a new substrate and process it with a fungicide. In conditions of insufficient humidity, the spider mite may be affected. For treatment, we recommend using acaricides, for example, Fitoverm, Aktellik, etc. In case of a defeat by insects, it is better to use systemic preparations, for example, Aktar.
The main care is to maintain the soil in a uniformly moistened state, without overdrying or over-wetting, periodically loosening the top layer of the soil, as well as pinching and pruning the elongated shoots to give the required shape and improve branching.
Temperature: Like all kutrovye Tabernemontana is thermophilic, in summer the usual room temperature, in winter not lower than 15 ° С, optimally 18-20 ° С. In the summer, the plant can be carried out on the open balcony or in the garden, when the threat of cold snaps will pass. Requires a draft-protected place.
Lighting: The plant needs a very bright place, with some direct sun in the morning or at the end of the day. Shading is necessary only at midday in the summer. A bright east window, or a window sill of a western window, is perfect if it is slightly shaded from the street by trees. On the south or bright west window on hot days in summer it is too hot.
Watering: Tabernemontana is sensitive to waterlogging, watering in summer is moderate: after the earth dries in the upper part of the pot, water it in 2-3 days (in hot weather in 1-2 days). In winter, watering is even stricter - after you make sure that the earth is really dry in the depths of the pot, wait a few more days. It is very important to choose a primer so that it does not stick together in a monolithic mass, but is easily wetted and dries quickly. Not bad for improving the structure of the soil and better aeration of the roots to add to the soil coconut shavings (from briquettes). If in the summer it is suddenly cold outside, the soil in the pots can dry for a very long time and the tabernemontana risks the health of the roots, so loosen the soil in a pot at a depth of 5-6 cm.
Fertilizer: From March to August, every two weeks with fertilizer for flowering houseplants, for example, Rainbow or Fertik-lux. Try not to exceed the dose of fertilizer, it will lead to malnutrition, instead of abundant flowering, yellowing of the leaves and oppression of the whole plant will begin. Tabernemontana is very sensitive to iron and potassium deficiency.
Air humidity: Requires a fairly high humidity, responds well to spraying. There is a small rule - it is better to spray once again than to water!
Transfer: Spring annually. The soil should be loose and well water flowing. Как известно, Табернемонтана довольно терпелива к кислотности почвы, в природе она растет как на слабощелочных, так и на слабокислых почвах, на суглинке и песке.In room conditions, such a mixture is suitable: 1 part peat, 1 part leafy ground, 1 part humus, 1 part sand, 1 part perlite (or vermiculite). Drainage is required. You can use peat based on peat with a pH close to a neutral or slightly acid reaction, and be sure to dilute it with vermiculite and sand, you can also use small clay (about 2-3 mm). Do not use dense clay soil, stick together after watering in a solid monolithic clod.
Reproduction: Cuttings and seeds that are germinated in soil heating in wide bowls covered with glass or bag. The seeding depth is about 10 mm. Soil for seeds - peat in half with sand, sterilization is obligatory. The usual care: spraying, watering with boiled water and airing 2-3 times a day.
The ideal plant for indoor growing - tabernemontana
Home care (photo) brings real pleasure to amateur flower growers in dealing with such an amazing flower. Under room conditions, a plant that is considered ideal for home cultivation for its docile disposition and amazing beauty can reach a height of up to 1.5 meters. The leaves are oblong, glossy, leathery, green, with pointed tips and inter-curved protuberances. The average sheet size is 6-12 cm.
Tabernemontana, care at home for which the power even to beginners in the flower business, is loved by housewives for abundant, almost year-round flowering. Its peak is in spring and summer. White terry flowers resemble bells with corrugated petals, characterized by a pleasant aroma, are about 4 cm in diameter, white or cream in color.
Types of tabernemontans
Tabernemontana divaricate. The most common type of indoor flower. A tree or bush plant, strongly branched, with dark green leaves, glossy, located opposite. On the reverse side of the leaf, transverse veins are clearly visible. The branches are located horizontally, fruits are podpodkopodnye, sometimes in a light speckled, with juicy orange pulp. The aroma of white terry flowers is persistent, sweet, similar to jasmine. Especially tabernemontana, care at home for which does not present much difficulty, smells sweet at night.
Tabernemontana elegant. A well-branched tree, smaller in size than the above-described variety of tabernemontans, with a vaguely pronounced aroma. Unpretentious care: it calmly transfers frosts and direct sunlight.
Tabernemontana crowned. The plant is richly branched, has brilliant bright green leaves, reaching 12 cm in length. In the inflorescence there can be up to 15 buds, the disclosure of which occurs gradually. Flowers with corrugated edges of petals, up to 5 cm in size, medium-sized, semi-double, are formed at the ends of the shoots. The aroma is exquisitely refined, the flowers that have just appeared are more tangible.
The optimal development of tabernemontans depends largely on the correct lighting, which should be bright but diffused. The ideal option would be placing a flower on the western or eastern side of the home. On the southern window-sill the plant will need shading. Tabernemontana, home care for which does not require special knowledge, can grow in the shade, but you should not expect abundant flowering at this location. The plant reacts to a lack of light by falling leaves.
The shrub is very useful fresh air, so in summer the flower can be kept on the balcony or in the garden. Intolerably tabernemontana, care at home for which is absolutely uncomplicated, refers to drafts. During the budding period the plant is not recommended to be moved to another place.
For most plants, winter is a period of rest. With cool room temperature and natural light, watering, spraying and fertilizing should be reduced, and, if necessary, buds should be removed. In other words, before the onset of spring, provide a mode of rest.
At a comfortable temperature (+ 18-20 o C) in winter, you will need to make additional lighting for such an unpretentious and charming plant as tabernemontana. Winter care is normally done. Compliance with these conditions will determine the abundant flowering of tropical beauty throughout the winter.
Watering and spraying is an important care factor.
Being from a subtropical area, tabernemontana, the care for which is a real pleasure, needs high humidity, therefore, in city apartments, where the air is often dry, the plant needs to be moistened regularly. Water must be separated, thawed or rain. It should not be allowed to fall on the flowers of the plant. Watering in hot weather and an abundance of light is preferred abundant (immediately after the drying of the upper layer of soil) in the summer, in the winter - limited. With excessive moisture, the plant sheds leaves and ceases to bloom.
For the quality growth of the flower requires a nourishing soil. A key factor in the good care of the plant is its timely watering and frequent feeding.
If the edges began to exfoliate on the leaves, then the plant suffers from a lack of water, nutrition, or there is salinity in the upper soil layer. You can save the situation by transplanting or updating the upper earthen layer.
Like any houseplant, tabernemontana will delight in lush flowering when applied to the soil dressings. Especially their use is relevant in the period of active growth and development of the flower - spring-summer. To this end, it is recommended to use liquid mineral fertilizer for flowering plants, rich in phosphorus and potassium, providing long-term flowering.
Tabernemontana, care, the reproduction of which at home is completely easy, will please with lush flowering when entering into the soil 2 or 3-year-old bird's humus. Fresh product can not be used because it has a negative effect on the root system. In the summer period, a tabernemontan should be fed twice a month with fertilizer for flowering houseplants.
For growing leaves and stems, mineral fertilizer is recommended for green plants. Fertilizer watering is best done in the evening. Dosage - according to the instructions. It should be remembered that a surplus of fertilizer is much more dangerous than its disadvantage.