Tall and squat, mighty and sophisticated, with a spreading chic crown and beautiful leaves - these royal trees serve as a worthy decoration of the streets of many cities. Elms are constantly planted in parks, in alleys, squares and in the courtyards of residential buildings. In the modern world, their noble family includes more than 20 species. The tree elm appeared about 40 million years ago, it is believed that it was then that it became an independent family. He was revered for the unusual qualities of the ancient Greeks and Romans. It is known that at the time of antiquity, elm grew on a considerable part of the Apennine peninsula. And according to the Old Slavonic legend, Svarog himself walked at the trunk of this wonderful tree, the revered god of the Eastern Slavs, along with the goddess of love, Lada.
Elm, which literally means "flexible rod", belongs to a genus of very ancient elm trees. In Europe, they are called elm (from the Celtic words elm), and among the Turkic peoples, elms are better known as karagach.
Tree description elm
Mature trees of most species of elm look like powerful giants, sometimes reaching heights of up to 40 meters, and in diameter of the trunk - up to 2 meters. Their crowns are thick, cylindrical. The bark on the trunks has a rich dark brown color, and the long lifetime of the tree remains smooth.
Elms in April-May bloom from several days to a week: small greenish-yellow flowers are collected in spherical tufts. At the place of flowering oblate fruits germinate peanuts, bordered with wings. They ripen with the onset of heat, and picked up by the wind spread throughout the county. Branched elm densely leafy with characteristic jagged edges. At the base of the oval leaves, a slight slope can be observed.
When describing an elm tree, it is worth mentioning its root system, which can successfully compete with oak. This is a highly developed network with individual roots reaching both the surface and depth. In podzolic soils, they diverge widely from each other. Sometimes, especially in large trees, disc-shaped roots may form at the foot of the trunk and serve as a support for them.
A remarkable feature of the elm trees is that some of their species can grow on fairly complex soils. They are well tolerated by drought, wind, hard frosts, able to grow in saline lands. That is why these trees have become indispensable in the steppe plantations, shelter belts and water protection zones. But elm trees grow more safely where the soil is rich and loose. Thus, their lifespan will depend entirely on the growth conditions of the environment, and usually it averages 200-400 years.
Planted elms with their powerful beautiful crown look decorative and give a scattered shadow, so they are often used for planting cities. They look great both single and group disembarkation. The foliage has a bright color and, depending on the type of trees and time of year, is filled with burgundy, yellow-orange, green, brown flowers. Elm foliage tolerates exhaust fumes, cleans the air, retains dust.
In nature, pure elm forests are extremely rare. Their mass plantations are observed in coniferous-deciduous and deciduous forests in Asia, Europe, Scandinavia, North America, and the Balkans. And if in Europe the elm is more common, smooth, rough, elliptical, leaf, in Asia it is squat, valley elm, lobed elm, and in America it is American elm.
In Russia, deciduous elm trees grow in the Far East, the Southern Urals, the southeastern part of the Russian Plain and the Central Region. The most common forests are with the following species of elm: leaf, lobed, small-leaved, smooth, cork, mountain (rough), large-fruited and Japanese. Preferring fertile soils, they grow mainly along the shores of lakes and in the floodplains of rivers. The total area of such plantations is 500 thousand hectares.
Ilm smooth (or ordinary) can be found mainly in deciduous forests in the territory of central Russia, Siberia, as well as in Kazakhstan. An elm tree tolerates shade and harsh winters, but favors moist and fertile soils. Its height is on average 25 meters, and the wide crown is presented in the shape of a ball. Elms of this species live up to 300 years, and their intensive growth is observed immediately after disembarkation.
The peculiarity of smooth elm consists in thin hanging branches with smooth and shiny bark. In old trees, this bark cracks and eventually forms peeling plates. The leaves of the elliptical shape have a smooth surface on one side, and the reverse is covered with hairs. With the onset of autumn, they acquire a rich purple color.
Ilm large-fruited is distributed in China, Korea, Mongolia and the Far East of Russia. Species got its name from large edible fruits. Elm looks like a shrub or small tree 6-8 meters high. Its bark is dark brown or gray and can crack deeply. The leaves have a pointed apex and a non-equal wedge-shaped base, and at the edges are edged with short serrated cloves. Being one of the most unpretentious and drought-resistant plants, elm grows in open areas: on rocky crevasses, ravines, on stony slopes, at the foot of the hills and on scree along rivers.
Spreading impressive crown, shiny leaves and large fruits make this type of elm decorative, with the result that it is successfully used in landscaping and urban greening.
Small-leaved (or squat) elm under natural conditions is widespread on the islands of Japan, northern Mongolia, eastern Kazakhstan, the Far East and Transbaikalia of Russia. It is also successfully cultivated in North America and Southern Europe. Mature trees of this species have an insignificant height and barely reach 15 meters, and in the diameter of the trunk are no more than a meter. Elms have a dense mart crown, sometimes growing a bush. Thin branches of yellowish-green color are covered with small, simple, elliptical or broadly lanceolate leaves from 2 to 7 cm long. In autumn, they acquire an olive-yellow color.
Small-leaved elm is very light-loving and unassuming to the soil, also tolerates frosts and drought. Due to such biological features, it is successfully used in forest shelter belts and for the restoration of the forest fund.
Elm bladed (or split) on biological grounds close to ilm rough, common in Europe. Under natural conditions, it is found in the Far East, Sakhalin, in Japan, Korea and China. It grows predominantly in the mixed forests of the foothill areas and on the mountain slopes, making its way up to 700 meters above sea level. The name of the view is obliged to the original form of large leaf blades resembling blades. Its trees with a dense cylindrical crown reach an average of 25 meters in height.
Bladed elm grows very slowly, by the age of 30 its growth is only 8 meters. It is more demanding on the soil, compared to its other relatives, and unstable to salts. At the same time, it is shade-tolerant, wind-resistant and tolerant of frost, although young trees of elm trees often freeze slightly in winter.
Ilm rough (or mountain) grows in Eastern and Western Europe, is found in the composition of deciduous forests and in the European part of Russia. Upright trees have smooth dark bark with brown branches and a rounded lush crown. Large dark green leaves on very short petioles grow in strict sequence, so the foliage almost does not transmit light. It has a rough surface on top and hairy bottom, outwardly representing certain patterns. At the onset of autumn leaves become saturated yellow.
Ilm rough is exacting to the soil and humidity, but gets along well in urban conditions - gazoustoychiv. Under favorable environmental conditions, an elm tree reaches a height of up to 35 meters and lives up to 400 years.
Elm grabber is a magnificent deciduous tree with a spreading crown, reaching a height of 35 meters and a trunk diameter of more than 150 cm. It is common in the Caucasus, Central Asia, North Africa and the European part of Russia. The wide trunk of the tree is covered with smooth bark from below, and in the area of appearance of the branches it becomes rough. Its long branches are spread out like a fan and covered with serrated, unequal leaves, quite diverse in size. An elm tree blooms generously in spring with small flowers, and closer to autumn it bears fruits with white nuts.
In the people, this type of elm is better known as karagach. It is characterized by strong salt tolerance and drought tolerance, therefore it is widely used in steppe breeding, arid areas, and in shelter belts.
Elms breed by self-sowing. Their seeds ripen in May and June and in a short time lose their germination. Therefore, only freshly harvested material will be suitable for planting. In nature, they can also multiply both undergrowth and root suckers, but for amateur nurseries such methods are ineffective in tree breeding.
Until the time of sowing, elm seeds should be stored in good ventilation for no more than one week. A couple of days before planting, they are moistened and treated with a fungicide. Landing sites do not require preliminary preparation, but it is possible to add a little mineral fertilizer to the soil. Seeds are sown in rows at a distance of 20-30 cm between the pits in a small depth - only 1 cm. From above they are covered with hay, moss or a thin layer of soil and well watered. Shoots are shown in a week. In the first year of life, elms grow to 15 cm, in the following they add to 40 cm.
History of origin
Elm smooth, or ordinary, is one of the representatives of the elm genus. This genus of deciduous trees is very ancient, more than 40 million years old. In the wild, all members of the genus grow in deciduous forests, sometimes found in spruce.
The cultivation of the plant occurred relatively recently, three centuries ago. From this point on, elm smooth began to be used to decorate park alleys.
It is assumed that the Latin name of the elm family, lmus, comes from the Celtic word "elm" - this is what the people called this tree. The Russian word "elm" appeared, most likely due to the fact that the wood of the plant is very flexible (viscous).
Elm can reach 40 meters in height. His crown looks like a wide cylinder, slightly rounded at the crown. It is formed from thick branches that are directed upwards. The trunk of an elm tree can reach three meters in diameter.
It is covered with smooth bark of brown-brown color, it cracks and peels off thin plates. At the surface of the earth, around the trunk, flat, board-like roots often form. They are necessary to maintain a massive trunk. Young shoots - light brown in color, with a slight sheen, may have a whitish plaque.
The foliage is oval or egg-shaped with a pointed end. The base is unbalanced. In length, the leaves reach 12 centimeters, in width - about 8 centimeters. They have a dark green color, with the lower side a little lighter than the top. Blooms tree small color, collected in bunches. The flowering period occurs in April-May, until the leaves bloom. Pollination of flowers occurs with the help of the wind. The fruit is like a small rounded leaf, inside of which is a seed.
Elm smooth can live to 200-250 years. Differs in growth intensity, but only up to 40-50 years - from this point on, growth gradually slows down. The tree is resistant to frost and strong winds. Low temperature can not survive only young shoots.
Durable elm wood is moisture resistant and is actively used for the manufacture of furniture, rifle butts and other products. Thanks to its shady crown, elm is well suited for arranging recreation areas in parks.
Elm grows on European lands (except for the Iberian Peninsula and Islands of Britain), in the Caucasus, in Asia Minor, in the Chelyabinsk and Sverdlovsk regions, in Kazakhstan. In the north, its growing area runs almost to the edge of the Eurasian continent. It mainly grows in mixed and deciduous forests.
Before planting a tree, you must prepare a place on the site. It should be a well-lit area, light shade is permissible. The sun's rays should evenly illuminate the young tree. If one side receives more light than the other, then the density of the crown will be uneven.
The soil should be fertile, loose, well-retaining moisture. Before planting plants in the soil make lime and enrich it with fertilizers and trace elements (magnesium, nitrogen, calcium, phosphorus). Note that the soil must be acidic.
Seeds ripen in summer. They need to immediately collect and have time to land a week otherwise germination will deteriorate. Preliminary seed preparation is not needed. At the selected site furrows are formed at a distance of 20-30 centimeters from each other. In the furrows and seeds are sown. Deepen them in the ground is not worth it. It is enough to slightly tuck earth, forming a layer of a couple of millimeters. If the summer is rainy, then you do not need to fill the ground with seeds - the more moisture, the better for them. Planted seeds need abundant watering for several weeks.
If you go to grow an elm from a cutting or sprout, then you can prepare planting material in late spring. Cut the stalk is treated with root formers and immersed in water. When the first roots appeared, you can land.
To do this, dig a hole with a depth of 50 centimeters, richly moisten the soil and enrich it with minerals. Sapling falls into a pit and powdered with earth. The place where the cutting is planted should be in light penumbra, since a strong sun can burn out a weak tree. Elm rooted fairly quickly. The main thing - the first week of its abundantly watered.
With the advent of the growing season and before pruning, the tree is watered regularly. Then watering is limited. It will be sufficient to maintain uniform soil moisture. In winter, watering is extremely rare.
The young tree needs additional fertilizing with organic fertilizers. The procedure is carried out once every two weeks. To increase the fertility of the soil, it is necessary to introduce sand, rubble, compost into it. Everything should be in the same proportions.
Do not interfere and soil mulching. The land around the elm is covered with fallen leaves, weeds, compost. They will serve as a source of nutrients for microorganisms living in the earth.
In order not to thicken the crown, it should be thinned. Do it from January to April. Formative pruning is carried out in the summer. To help give the crown the necessary shape can wire. She wrapped the extra branch and leave for a year. It limits the stem thickening and helps guide it.
To trim successfully, you need:
- to prune shoots at an early age
- try to keep the length of the branches constant,
- more often cut off the branches without foliage, so that they do not take power from the tree.
Diseases and pests
Elm smooth - unpretentious and resistant to most diseases tree. His only enemy with whom it is almost impossible to cope is the Dutch disease. It is caused by a fungus that is carried by bark beetles. Getting on the plant, the fungus prevents the normal circulation of sap along the trunk and branches. As a result, the leaves begin to curl, the plant growth gradually slows down. Dysplasia is manifested in the untimely appearance and loss of foliage. After a while the sick tree dies.
Botanists are not worried about this disease in one country, as the number of elm trees is rapidly declining because of it, and there are still no effective methods of dealing with an illness. If an infected tree is found, it must be immediately destroyed along with the pests that carry the fungus.
Another attack - shield. This is a tiny insect, similar to a flat bug. To notice it on a tree is extremely difficult, since at first glance it may seem that the trunk is covered with growths. To determine that the plant is infected, it is possible only by foliage - it is covered with white or yellow spots. Sore tree should be uprooted and burned immediately.
Foliage, flowers and elm bark contains: polysaccharides, fiber, protein, oils, catechins, flavonoids, carboxylic acids, tannins. Therefore, the plant has antibacterial, diuretic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and enveloping effect.
Due to such properties, elm components are actively used for:
- борьбы с воспалительными процессами в мочевом пузыре,
- устранения отёков,
- восстановления повреждённых мышц,
- борьбы с кожными болезнями,
- устранения разладов пищеварения,
- избавления от колик,
- быстрого заживления ран.
Вяз — дерево первой величины
it дерево первой величины. В хороших условиях достигает приличной высоты — 30—35 метров и полутора метров в диаметре. Живет до 400 лет.
The trunk of mature trees is mostly straight and round, a little runaway. Young trees do not have a vertical apical shoot, that is, grow in all directions, but over the years are aligned.
Virtues of elm
What else merits possesses elm? It is frost-resistant, does not suffer from frosts, tolerates dry air and drought, as well as soil salinity. Shade
Although the elm prefers to live on good deep and loose soils, nevertheless the above-mentioned signs make it a xerophyte tree (more: Xerophytes and hydrophytes). Therefore, it is an indispensable breed, like maple, in steppe afforestation, and in the shelter belts it is used as a companion breed. By virtue of its shade tolerance, it is a good fur coat for the main breeds, for example, oak.
In the past, elm was used in steppe afforestation and as the main breed.
Features of elm growth
What are the features still has elm? Features these refer to elm growth. The fact is that both shoots and young elm trees grow quickly and give a gain of up to one meter per year. But after 12-15 years his growth begins to slow down. When the elm turns 40-50 years old, it grows completely unimportant, and by the age of 80-100 years its growth stops altogether.
Elm wood is strong, viscous, resilient, relatively light, it is widely used in the furniture industry, car building.
Pure elm groves are rare. As a rule, it is part of the broadleaf-oak forests.
Due to the flexible structure of wood fibers from the bast obtained in ancient times, they wove many household items. These were both exquisite sleighs and housewares. The thinning of the arc and the rim adorned the abode of the inhabitants of ancient Russia. At the same time, branches and leaves are widely used for tanning leather products.
The name of this tree originates from the Celtic language, in which there is such a word as “Elm”. The German and Latin name of the plant is also very similar - “Ulmus”. The literal translation of all these words means "bending rod."
Externally, the elm is a mighty tree, the description and photo of which is presented below. The trunk of this representative elm in young age is covered with smooth bark of a light brown color. As the plant grows, it becomes thick, and also rather coarse, and over time begins to peel off thin plates. The deep cracks on its surface resemble the scars of war wounds. On some branches growths can form and develop.
The powerful birch bark root system runs very deeply, so it can calmly reach the groundwater level. Due to this feature of the roots, the elm grows to 25-30 m in height, with a trunk circumference of 1.5 m. However, some varieties do not root deeply, but more into the upper layers of the earth, occupying a huge area. The age of many members of this family can range from 200 to 300 years.
The long-lived record holder was able to survive the fire of 1812, which occurred in Moscow. However, the sultry summer of 2010, he still could not move and dried completely.
First date with elm
Looking at the photo of leaves and seeds of an elm tree, one can notice some unique features of their structure. With this study, the grower will not confuse him with other varieties. These slender giants have:
- Small nondescript flowers of purple hue. Lush inflorescences are decorated with a variety of purple stamens. In combination with the gently green legs, they look special. The flowering period of the plant is 10 days. It will mostly fall on March or April.
- Large leaves. On the stem, they are arranged alternately. The length of each varies from 12 to 15 cm. The tapered conical shape of the leaves is in harmony with the ribbed surface. Pronounced side streaks create a relief texture on a dark green canvas. The upper part of the leaves is smooth, but the lower part is covered with a fluffy layer of villi. It is on them that all the dust accumulates. In the autumn, they acquire an amazing color in yellow-red colors.
- Young shoots. They grow in the lower part of the trunk, forming bulky tubers. Light brown young stalks have a smooth texture.
- Fruit. Each of them resembles a thin plate - a lionfish, - in the center of which is hidden a seed. In the upper part of the wing is a refined recess. They are planted on short cuttings and collected in thick bunches. However, the tree begins to bear fruit from the age of seven or eight. By the end of May or the beginning of June, the seeds are fully ripened.
Smooth Elm is the most popular elm variety. It is found in many city parks. This species perfectly tolerates harsh winters and maintains temperatures down to –28 ° C. But still shoots of plants can freeze slightly. Of the 16 popular species, half can be found on the Scandinavian Peninsula, as well as in Europe. If we analyze where the elm tree grows in Russia, we can see that these are mostly humid regions, such as:
- Western Siberia
- The Volga region
- Southern Urals (Chelyabinsk and Sverdlovsk region),
Ilm gets on well not only in a humid environment, but also in a dry climate, as it penetrates to underground sources. The banks of rivers and lakes, as well as deciduous forests are their favorite habitats. Yet very compacted and saline soils adversely affect the livelihoods of the tree, although the elm and unpretentious to the choice of soil.
Birch grows incredibly fast. The annual growth of both a young sapling and an adult tree is 0.5 meters high and 0.3 m wide.
Features breeding and care
Many people know about the healing properties of the bark, leaves and elm fruits, so they want to have this luxury in their garden. Due to the diuretic and astringent action of these natural components, it is used in the treatment of:
- gastrointestinal tract,
- skin diseases
The extract obtained from bark is used as an anti-inflammatory or antibacterial agent. Moreover, these trees create a cozy atmosphere in the garden. They “love” a haircut, so it’s easy to create a hedge.
It is important to adhere to the basic rules of planting elm seeds. As soon as they mature, they should be planted immediately into the ground. The first two weeks are the optimal period for this. If you wait a little, they lose their properties. Although the seeds do not require preliminary preparation, it is necessary to properly seed them. For this you need:
- dig up the garden well
- to make mineral fertilizers,
- make the distance between rows from one to two meters,
- sow grain with a step of 30-50 cm,
- fill a small hole with a thin layer of soil,
- plenty of water.
You can plant it in the shade. Nevertheless, on a lawn well warmed by the sun, it will grow several times faster. The elm crown expands very quickly, which can negatively affect neighboring light-loving plants. Among other things, since ancient times they have mutual intolerance with grapes.
It is worth noting that June can surprise with its hot weather. Therefore, the planted area must be covered with a film until shoots appear. About a month young sprouts should be watered abundantly.
The eternal problem of an elm tree is a Dutch disease. If there are many dried / unblown branches on it, the bare bark and at the same time the crown is scanty, it means that the bark is affected by this disease. The main reason for its occurrence is excessively moist soil. He can be ill in this way from several weeks to 5-7 years. Therefore, you need to monitor the level of soil moisture to lush thickets always decorated the garden.