Table grape varieties are quite popular because they have good taste properties. Sofia grapes are one of the best among table species. A description of this is here.
Sofia grapes - table variety, characterized by early ripening berries.
Characteristic of Sofia grape variety
Grape variety Sofia belongs to the table species of early ripening. In early August, you can already harvest. The variety was produced by amateur breeder V. Zagorulko, crossing the grape varieties Arkady and Kishmish radiant. Sofia is quite popular in the central regions of Russia, where there are no winters with severe frosts.
In the description of the bush are marked large leaves, characterized by a bright green color, small dissection. Often you can find a bush Sophia with wavy leaves. Towards autumn, yellowness appears on them. The flowers are female, but with the nearby hermaphrodite types of grapes, there will be no problems with pollination.
The bunch itself is quite large, reaching one kilogram in mass and more. There are facts when a bunch of Sophia weighed about three kilograms. The shape of a bunch in the form of a cone, relatively dense, almost no pea. When describing a variety, berries attract particular attention. They are beautiful and large, reaching 15-16 grams in weight. They are shaped like an egg with a small amount of seeds (2-3 seeds). The skin is moderately dense, but not felt when eating. The pulp is characterized by meatiness with a high percentage of juiciness. Very tasty berries that have an exquisite Muscat flavor. They are gentle, melt in your mouth. From these berries get a delicious juice. Fruits are stored relatively well, but as stated in the description, they are gentle, so you need to transport carefully.
Berries attract the original reddish tinge. But they can crack during long rains and crumble.
Vine strong, with bright brown color. The vine of this grape grows quickly, so it is high.
In the description of the variety should be noted that it requires attention.
Grape variety Sophia reacts poorly to an overdose of preparations containing nitrogen, but it develops well with phosphorus-potassium supplements. Be sure to cover the bush for the winter. Does not like this grape prolonged heat. In such cases, it is useful to cover the leaves with clusters. The variety is characterized by stable yield, but for a high percentage of fruiting, it is necessary to prune the bush annually. The variety is valued for its high yield. In order to maintain this property of the variety, it is necessary to annually make pruning of the vine. Since Sofia is characterized by active growth, pruning is done, leaving between six and eight eyes. The cuttings of this variety are characterized by the ability to quickly take root and adapt to new conditions.
Be sure to conduct abundant watering of the bush before flowering, during flowering and after.
Vaccinations with caution. You need to be sure that Sofia is instilled into someone who is not inferior in properties to her. By grafting it to a weaker species, the cub will also be weak.
Fight against diseases and pests
Sofia is valued for resistance to fungal diseases (different types of powdery mildew, rot). But it is necessary to carry out preventive measures using Radomil and TILT-250. Sofia is resistant to phylloxera, but preventive actions are also needed here. For this purpose, Bordeaux liquid, karbofos, vitriol, anthracol fungicide, TILT-250 are used to treat the bush.
Often when the berries begin to fill with juice and become colored, and the grower is already anticipating a rich harvest, the birds are destroying the cloudlessness of the situation.
You also need to take methods to protect the fruit from birds, insects, which are very attracted to the tasty and beautiful berries. Methods are as follows:
- Protecting the fruit from the birds, will come to the aid of a special protective mesh.
- In the fight against wasps, dichlorvos and insecticides are used. But it is necessary to fully review the territory for identification of wasp nests. Found nest burned. It is useful to put the bunches of grapes in special bags from the net and then the wasps will not make their way to the sweet berries.
Sophia's productivity is consistently good. Since the bush is powerful, vigorous, the shoots ripen evenly, and the fruits have the right amount of nutrient particles. Due to its tallness, the grapes are well lit by the sun.
Although the bush only flowers of female affiliation, he is well perceived pollen of other varieties. Productivity from it does not decrease. In same-sex varieties often manifested pea berries. But Sofia with same-sex flowers, this is not. The best grape pollinator for Sofia is Arkady.
It happens that in a rainy summer, the harvest of the described grapes will be quite scarce.
But Sofia also does not prefer dry soil.
The variety belongs to the super early species and ripens from 110 to 115 days, allowing you to harvest in August.
Pros and cons varieties
In the description of the grapes should pay attention to its different sides.
Sofia has both pros and cons. The benefits of grapes are as follows:
- early ripening with a bountiful harvest and excellent taste properties,
- resistance to frost for the southern regions of Russia and Ukraine is good (up to -21 degrees), but it is better to cover for the winter, especially in colder regions,
- tolerates heat and drought normally, but in case of prolonged heat, it is advisable to cover the clusters with leaves,
- almost not damaged by fungal diseases,
- the variety carries the transportation relatively well, which makes it possible to grow it for business,
- cuttings tend to root quickly.
The downsides of Sofia are as follows:
- the flowers are only for women, but the author of the variety Zagorulko notes the excellent susceptibility of Sofia to pollen of other varieties, which does not reduce the yield, and the fact that the grapes are flowering for a long time is taken into account,
- requires attention and care
- berries can crack during long rains,
- ripe berries do not hold on clusters for a long time, they fall.
When describing bunches of grape varieties Sofia, beauty is indicated on the outside and excellent taste properties. The magnificence of the clusters does not leave anyone indifferent who sees them and will try the exquisite taste. But Sofia demands attention and care. Having made competent leaving, you as a reward will enjoy the most tasty fruits from a plentiful harvest.
Sofia grapes: rules of planting and care
Planting Sofia is recommended in the spring, when the rhizome of grapes normally perceives the new environment. In the conditions of warm air and heated soil, young animals quickly adapt and take root in the right place. The main thing is that the seedlings are not shaded by buildings and other vegetation.
Placing a vineyard with Sofia bushes is better from the south-west or south side of any building. The distance between the wall and the plantings should be 1 m or more, if the plot allows.
If the country is dominated by clay soil, it is diluted with sand. Conversely, naturally sandy soils manually diversify with clay. Given the tendency to grow strongly, when planting several bushes between the holes indent 3 - 4 m.
Requirements for planting pits:
- It is necessary to dig holes for saplings in advance, 2 - 3 weeks before the implementation of the main planting works.
- The depth of the wells is 80 cm or more. Their bottom is covered with a mixture of fertile soil with humus (make up in the amount of 2 buckets).
- Supporting the seedling, the root system is half asleep and moisten the soil with water (a full bucket or one and a half). Soil compacted and bury the hole completely. The surrounding soil is mulched.
Sofia grapes - moisture-loving variety. Before flowering and as the formation of the ovary bushes must be watered. During prolonged heat, watering is also not forgotten. In any case, after watering around the bush put a 3-centimeter layer of mulch - moss, humus or blackened sawdust.
Fertilize the vineyard regularly. Top dressing requires increased attention during the fruiting period of the crop. Sofia takes the best replenishment of grapes from phosphate-potassium fertilizers, nitrogen and humus. Nitrogenous substances are not abused.
Shrubs are pruned regularly every fall or early spring. Shoots shortened by 4 - 6 eyes. Form a shrub in the likeness of a fan. A good result is shown by trimming the lower third of the vine, and removing 1/3 of the ovary when the fruit reaches the size of a pea. At gronkas weighing up to 1 kg, berries of equal size and color are formed.
Despite the good frost resistance, the nursery is sheltered for the winter. The youngsters are covered with sand, setting plastic buckles over the bushes with the bottom cut off. Over the old bushes create film "corridors".