A good host is preparing for winter from the beginning of summer. The fact is that in winter time turkeys need a comfortable spacious room. In the old chicken coop you can place several birds, but if you have a large population, then it is better for him to build a separate chicken house. When building on each bird should take at least a square square space. In the summer, for a comfortable keeping of domestic turkeys, the main thing is to have extensive walking, and in winter the birds should be quite spacious in the house.
It is necessary to think over in advance, than to heat the room in the winter. There are two types of heating poultry houses:
- Natural heating when the indoor temperature in the winter is maintained by preserving heat. To achieve this effect, the owner must caulk all the holes, except for the vent, and insulate the walls during the construction of the room. However, at very severe frosts this method does not fulfill its task, and the room must be warmed up additionally.
- Artificial heating, for which electrical appliances, gas boilers, stoves, infrared appliances or lamps are used.
If the landlord did not approach the issue of heating in advance, the conditions of detention may not be comfortable enough and the turkeys will become ill or die.
Preparation of turkeys for the winter should start in the warm season
Temperature and comfort
One more plus of keeping turkeys in our climatic conditions is relative frost resistance. Birds can withstand temperatures as low as -15 ° C. With this cold, turkeys should be on the run at least 1 hour. If the conditions on the street are more comfortable, then the walk can be increased up to 2-3 hours.
Home turkeys must always be cleared of snow. Birds have very sensitive legs. In the snow, they quickly freeze and can get sick.
If the temperature outside has fallen below -15 ° C, then the conditions in the room should also change slightly. To avoid dampness and mold, it is better to lower the temperature to -3 ° С, the minimum allowable indoors is minus 5 ° С. In the rest of the time, comfortable conditions for keeping in winter are from +1 to + 3 ° С.
An important condition for winter housing at home is to provide the birds with a dry, warm bedding. A thick layer of straw, peat or sawdust must lie on the floor of the house. To avoid dampness and dirt, straw is replaced every 10 days, the rest of the filler - every 3 weeks.
Turkeys are relatively resistant to low temperatures.
Each owner is interested in the fact that in winter the egg production of domestic turkeys does not fall, and the males continue to do their work. These indicators are highly dependent on the conditions of detention, and specifically on the correct lighting of the house.
If your house has windows, then, with only young stock, you can do without additional lighting. If you contain adult birds, then lamps are necessary even with windows. Another thing is when the walls of the house are deaf. In this case, when keeping young stock, the house is lit for about seven hours, and when keeping adult birds - up to 14 hours per day. If you do not comply with the lighting time, then the egg production of turkeys will significantly decrease.
Alternative content method
Some poultry farmers have adapted to keep domestic birds in the winter in a polycarbonate greenhouse. This method has opponents and supporters. Opponents claim that the greenhouse quickly becomes damp, and the polycarbonate itself is very fragile in the cold. But supporters disagree with them. The fact is that in this room it is warm enough, naturally a light day is provided, and, which is important, a lot of space.
The lower part of the greenhouse can be covered with slate sheets or plywood so that the turkeys do not break the polycarbonate with their beaks.
Roots and feeders must be mobile so that they can be easily installed and also easily dismantled. The floor, as in the stationary house, must be covered with thick bedding. And in the spring, before using the greenhouse for its intended purpose, it is simply washed with water from a hose and dug.
The floor should be covered with a thick layer of bedding.
Some owners use idle greenhouses not for keeping, but for walking turkeys and other poultry. This is especially true in frosty or rainy weather.
If in the summer turkeys had enough greens and grains, in the winter, their diet should be approached more thoughtfully. Your players spend more energy because they constantly need to warm themselves. With the onset of cold weather for turkeys establish three meals a day. In the morning and in the evening they pour grain and mixed fodder, and in the afternoon wet mash or juicy food.
In winter, corn, barley and wheat must predominate in the diet, since they contain a lot of fiber and carbohydrates.
A large variety of succulent fodder in winter is difficult to achieve. In this capacity, you can use:
- chopped carrots,
- ground beetroot
- dry herbs (steamed),
- acorns and chestnuts,
- sprigs of coniferous trees.
The last two options are usually used as an additive in a wet mash, and not as an independent feed.
Beetroot can diversify the winter diet turkey
In negligent hosts, in winter, turkeys often suffer from parasites in feathers. To avoid this scourge, be sure to leave in the house a container filled with ash and sand. Poultry uses a sand-ash bath for the prevention and control of parasites.
Do not forget that turkeys, like chickens, constantly peck up small gravel and pebbles. Separately from the feed, put crushed shells, chalk and charcoal in the trough. It is necessary for digestion.
In the winter maintenance of turkeys there is nothing especially difficult. If the owner was not lazy and prepared for low temperatures and short days, then his house will overwinter in warmth and comfort, without loss.
The maintenance of turkeys in the winter at home requires a spacious room. Given the size of these birds, no more than two birds should be placed per square meter.
For the placement of turkey livestock fit poultry houses used for chickens, which have enough space and there is an attached area for walking birds.
Moreover, the room, which will be intended for the winter keeping of turkeys, will have to be heated. This can be done in several ways:
- by means of natural heating, in which the required temperature conditions are maintained due to the natural preservation of heat,
- through the use of artificial heating systems.
With natural heating in the room for growing turkeys in the winter season is checked for the presence of existing cracks and holes that caulk. The walls of the building must be insulated. In this case, we must not forget that sometimes natural heating is not enough to ensure proper thermal conditions. In such cases, in the premises where the bird is kept, electrical equipment and gas boilers, infrared equipment are additionally installed.
Creating a comfortable stay
Regardless of the fact that some birds (for example, Siberian hawks) are able to survive even severe winter frosts, withstanding temperatures as low as -15, while caring for turkeys in winter they should create comfortable conditions that will not prevent them from developing properly and will not affect productive indicators of turkeys that carry an egg.
Create a bird comfortable conditions
Of considerable importance in the winter keeping of birds are bedding, on which they spend most of their time. Warm bedding is a thick straw, peat or sawdust layer. To ensure dryness of the litter layer, it is changed:
- with an interval of 10 days - straw filler,
- at intervals of 21 days - peat or sawdust filler.
The minimum allowable temperature limit in the winter time in the room is not lower than -5 degrees. However, such a degree indicator can only be in cases when the window is lower than -15. In such a winter, in order to avoid mold, due to excessive humidity in the room, it is recommended to lower the temperature to -3. In all other cases, in the room for keeping turkeys in the winter time at home, the scale on the thermometer should not fall to 1-3 degrees. This is the most suitable heat regime for poultry, otherwise turkeys are carried much less frequently.
The walking area for turkeys on the street should be cleared of snow cover, so the birds are too sensitive limbs, so they often freeze them in the winter cold, which leads to colds.
Walking time at -15 degrees on the street is reduced to one hour. Provided that the temperature is more comfortable, the walking period is extended to two to three hours.
In order to maintain the required light, the house where turkeys are kept in winter should be provided with proper lighting devices, as the light level noticeably affects the productive indicators of egg production.
In the presence of properly organized natural lighting in the form of windows in the house, such lighting can be limited to, without resorting to other lighting fixtures. Natural light is enough for rearing. For adult poultry it will take at least 14 hours of daylight, so even if there are window openings in the building, additional sources of artificial light cannot be dispensed with.
Principles of winter feed ration
The lack of a green nutrient diet, which is usual for turkeys in summer seasons, should be compensated when keeping birds in winter, because during wintering turkeys in cold time require more energy, which is spent mainly on their own warming.
In the period of winter keeping of turkey livestock, they are transferred to feeding of poultry three times a day, and in the winter time the feeders are transferred under the roof of the house.
The distribution of the feed ration when feeding turkeys in winter is as follows:
- in the morning and evening meal, the birds are given cereals and animal feed,
- During the day-feeding for turkeys are given mash and succulent feed.
Among the mandatory food components for feeding turkeys in the winter at home should be corncobs, barley and wheat crops, which contain a lot of carbohydrate components and fiber for turkeys.
As a more scarce, than in the summer, winter ration for feeding turkeys, you can include chopped carrots and beets, steamed dry herbs in the menu. Coniferous branches, acorns and chestnuts can be used when feeding as a separate feed, and as an additive in mash.
A bit of history
In many developed countries, turkey meat is one of the main decorations of the holiday table. It is used not only for the preparation of mono-dishes, but also part of the incredibly delicious smoked meats. For large feasts, the chicken carcass will not be enough, but a 20-pound overseas bird is enough for everyone.
Turkey has had over 1000 years of experience living at home by the time they hit the European continent along with the ship of Christopher Columbus.
The turkeys were brought to Europe thanks to the efforts of Christopher Columbus.
Turkeys are considered a big poultry: males easily gain 20 kg, and females - 10 kg and even more. Differences in weight are observed already on reaching 20 days: males are about 30% heavier than females. By the 4th month, the bird mass begins to increase rapidly: in females, the weight index increases by 170, and in males - by 200 times. If you transfer this phenomenon to a person, then at 4 months he would weigh 700 kg.
Keeping turkeys in winter at home for beginners
According to reviews of experienced poultry farmers, turkeys are perfectly adapted to the harsh climate of Russia, they rarely get sick, they require a minimum of attention.
Beginning breeders anxiously await the arrival of cold weather and are experiencing how turkeys survive the winter. According to the reviews of experienced poultry farmers, these birds are perfectly adapted to the harsh climate of Russia, they rarely get sick, they require a minimum of attention. Here are the basic rules that should be followed when keeping turkeys in winter:
- keep the house clean - a mandatory requirement. The litter is quickly polluted if turkeys spend most of the day indoors. As a result, parasites and bacteria breed in it, which will adversely affect the health of turkeys. The litter can also quickly get damp, and turkeys are sensitive to this. As pollution, old hay, straw endure. To have enough material for litter, you need to stock up in the fall,
- with a strong drop in temperature outside, birds do not need to be let out of the turkey-hen. They do not tolerate sudden changes in temperature and can get sick,
- In winter, turkeys are transferred to a 3-time diet consisting of grain mixtures and mixed feed. In the morning and in the evening you can give dry food, grated vegetables, hay flour. At lunch it is important to give a wet mash, boiled root vegetables,
- The mountain ash, crushed needles, nettle, carrots, and beets help saturate the turkey body with vitamins. Turkeys in winter love to peck the branches of poplar and acacia. For this, in the autumn they make blanks in the form of brooms, which are hung in the house,
- perches in the turkey farm set at a height of about 50-60 cm from the floor. This distance is quite enough so that the turkeys' body does not cool in an unheated room. On one individual need to allocate 40 cm perch,
- daily birds must be let out for a walk. Turkeys are prone to obesity, especially with a sedentary lifestyle. If it is too cold in the yard, after a few hours the birds are driven back.
The maintenance of turkeys in the winter at home rarely causes difficulties even for beginning breeders. To avoid problems, we recommend to watch the video and use the tips of experienced poultry farmers.
Content of turkeys in the winter in a polycarbonate greenhouse
In summer, keeping turkeys at home is not difficult. Most of the day the birds can spend on grazing, which significantly reduces the cost of feeding. In winter, the usual feed is not enough and for the birds it is necessary to properly formulate a diet, create conditions in the house.
A good idea is to keep turkeys in a polycarbonate greenhouse. In winter, this room is usually empty. Why not use it more rationally and run turkeys? This bird is not demanding to the conditions of detention. With frosts up to −15 degrees, turkeys do not need to install a heater, because thanks to thick down and dense feathering turkeys tolerate such temperatures perfectly.
Due to the fact that the polycarbonate is transparent, during the daytime inside the greenhouse of polycarbonate will be quite light. Artificial lighting should be turned on at dusk. The total length of the day for turkeys should be about 14-15 hours.
How to equip a polycarbonate greenhouse to turkeys in the room was comfortable? Poultry farmers recommend to pay attention to the following aspects, namely:
- It is good to warm the litter for the winter. The cold floor of the greenhouse is one of the main sources of heat loss in winter. A dense layer of hay, straw, peat, sawdust will be enough. The main thing is not to reduce the temperature in the room below -5 degrees.
- Eliminate drafts. All the cracks in the walls need to be repaired. They will be a source of heat loss and drafts. If this is not done, the birds will often suffer from colds.
- Place a container with sand and ash inside a polycarbonate greenhouse. Turkeys love to swim in these baths. This saves them from various parasites (feathers) that infest on the skin and among feathers.
- If it is expected that the winter will be harsh, it is recommended to further warm the walls. For this fit plywood, chipboard or scrap materials. In this case, the wall will not emanate cold and the birds will become warmer. Protection of walls with slate, chipboard sheets is recommended also so that turkeys do not damage the greenhouse with their powerful beaks.
In winter, it is very important to maintain the ability of males to fertilize turkeys, to keep the last egg production rates at high elevations. In addition, it is necessary to try to facilitate the molting period for the birds, also taking place in the winter period. To do this, you must take care of shaping the correct daylight modewhat many artificial light sources are designed to help you with.
When keeping young stock, it is enough to have a small amount of natural light, since the light day, sufficient for adequate development of turkey poults, is only 7–8 hours. However, for adult birds, the duration of daylight should be at least 14 hours; otherwise, the egg production rates of the flock will significantly decrease. As a light source, you can use any lamp at the rate of 1 light bulb per 3 square meters of space.
Немаловажное значение в зимнем содержании птицы имеют подстилки, на которой они проводят большую часть своего времени. Теплая подстилка представляет собой толстый соломенный, торфяной либо опилочный слой. To ensure dryness of the litter layer, it is changed:
- with an interval of 10 days - straw filler,
- at intervals of 21 days - peat or sawdust filler.
The walking area for turkeys on the street should be cleared of snow cover, so the birds are too sensitive limbs, so they often freeze them in winter cold weather, which leads to colds.
Walking time at −15 degrees outside is reduced to one hour. Provided that the temperature is more comfortable, the walking period is extended to two to three hours.
Vitamin and mineral supplements
Turkeys, like any other bird, in the cold season require metabolic support in the form of a variety of vitamin and mineral supplements. In the cold period, some prefer to simply give their pets more green food, but this tactic does not always justify itself because of too high energy costs for birds to compensate for molting, to fulfill the need for warming the body and general acceleration of metabolic processes:
- In general, you need to know that three vitamins are vital for birds in winter: A, D and E. This vitamin complex can be found as a finished product in any veterinary pharmacy called Trivit or Tetravit. Most often, such additives are introduced into the feed immediately before feeding the birds, although their intramuscular administration is also possible. The dosage is 7-10 milliliters for every 10 kilograms of feed.
- Mineral supplements are primarily needed to ensure adequate metabolic processes, successful and easy molting, as well as for the formation of eggs. The easiest way to provide birds with a sufficient amount of such additives in the least expensive form for owners is to add a small amount of small particles of chalk, lime, salt, shells or shell rock to the feed. It is also possible to use more expensive veterinary supplements, for example, Agroservice, Ryabushka, Rural Yard, etc., which also need to be mixed with feed.
The importance of ash baths
The presence of skin or feather parasites delivers a lot of trouble, not only turkeys, but also the owners, because pets will have to be treated, and if you do not do it in a timely manner, you can get a very dismal result.
Blood-sucking insects bring discomfort to the bird: turkeys can start pecking themselves in an attempt to get rid of the itch. At the same time, the skin is injured, which can lead to rasklevam, attacks on a weakened individual. Cannibalism often ends in death.
To prevent the appearance of parasites in the room set capacity, filled with a mixture of ash and sand. The bird will take a dry bath and clean the feathers, and this helps maintain hygiene. All that the master needs is to ensure that the mixture does not end.
Reviews of farmers who contain turkeys in the winter at home, are inclined to an alternative option for the placement of poultry. Instead of the usual for all poultry houses, they adapted to keep turkeys in winter time in greenhouses made of polycarbonate material. This content has both positive and negative sides. Among the advantages, farmers note the preservation of the thermal regime in the greenhouse, the maintenance of the required length of the light day in a natural way and the presence of space.
To preserve the flooring of a polycarbonate greenhouse, which birds often pierce with their beak, the floor is covered with slate or plywood sheets.
Among the minuses of keeping turkeys in the winter in the greenhouse, some indicate that in greenhouse conditions it often becomes wetter than in a normal building, and the material itself becomes brittle from frost.
Requirements for the room
The maintenance of turkeys in the winter in the greenhouse requires that the individual have at least 1 m 2 of territory, because they spend most of the day on it. You can resort to an alternative option - a polycarbonate greenhouse. So winter breeding will be easier. Such greenhouses easily transmit light, so the cost of additional lighting will be minimal. The house of the house accumulates heat. So that the birds do not peck the floor, it is covered with plywood or slate sheets, covered with litter on top. Before spring, the greenhouse is cleaned with water from a hose, dug up.
In a conventional greenhouse, heat can be stored in two ways:
- Naturally. To this end, the house is caulked, insulated using natural materials,
- Artificial. To do this, use gas boilers, stoves, electrical appliances.
Most often they use peat, straw or hay, which changes every 2 weeks. If you hold the flooring longer, there will be a risk of developing mold, which will lead to the appearance of fungal diseases in birds.
You should be aware that the temperature of turkey keeping in winter is a very important factor influencing the rate of egg production. It is important that it be stable, as sudden drops are detrimental.
The climate should be maintained throughout the winter, otherwise they will fall ill. Turkeys need a stable microclimate for timely maturation, the beginning of laying.
Caring for turkeys in winter requires access to fresh air. It is necessary to take them on walks on sunny days, so that individuals receive vitamin D. Particular attention should be paid to the territory. It is important that it be cleared of snow, otherwise the legs will suffer from the cold. Turkeys do not like walking, so you can cheat and put nettle brooms in the yard. Plucking them, they linger longer in the fresh air.
Care for turkeys in the home includes the installation of a bath with sand and ash. In it, the birds will bathe, cleaning their feathers. If this is not done, then parasites will appear in the feather cover, which will lead to turkey diseases.
In winter, the animals should be fed 3 times a day, as they need strength for heating. The basis of the diet - high-calorie grain and animal feed, barley, corn and wheat, containing large amounts of carbohydrates, a lot of fiber. Suitable personally cooked mixture. Once a day for lunch the birds give wet mash.
Feeding in the winter should be varied, so you can add carrots, beets to the mash beans. You can also give crushed parts of pine, fir, spruce, because they contain vitamins A and C. Conifer should be given at the rate of 10 g per bird. It is useful to include rowan in the diet at the rate of 10 berries per individual.
What to feed the turkeys? You can give them crushed chestnuts, acorns. Up to 40 pieces per day per bird. For a change, clover and alfalfa should be steamed.
It is necessary to ensure that the birds feed without crowding, crowding, therefore the trough with food must be large. For the slab, a separate trough should be installed with small pebbles, gravel, chalk, crushed shell. All this is necessary for healthy digestion.
In the diet include fish oil in the calculation of 2 g per bird, if not possible in the paddock in the winter. A couple of days before slaughter, fat is excluded from the diet, as it can give the meat an unpleasant flavor.
For young individuals, walking and natural light is enough in winter, but adults need to increase daylight artificially up to 14 hours a day. Otherwise, in the winter rushing turkeys badly. It is useful to separate the females and males in this period. To stimulate puberty in males, they increase the amount of light 3 weeks earlier than turkeys.
In general, the winter maintenance of birds is more troublesome than the summer. When caring for birds, you should remember about their health, supply the body with vitamins, which are contained in various vegetable crops. Negligent owners may face a number of problems, but the winter will be easy if you are fully armed.
Optimum indoor temperature for keeping turkeys in winter
In order to provide your birds with comfortable living conditions in the house and try to make the wintering process as easy as possible for them, it is recommended to warm the room so that the average daily temperature inside does not fall below -5 ° C. This is the extreme limit of the indoor temperature for keeping turkeys.
Among home farmers, it is believed that the optimum temperature for the normal operation of turkey organisms in the winter period is from -1 ° C to +3 ° C. It must be remembered that too high a temperature inside the house during the winter can cause significant damage to your birds, since they will suffer greatly from the temperature difference when going for a walk and returning to the room.
Preparing the house for winter
To maintain a large flock of turkeys, it is necessary to have a separate spacious poultry house, specifically prepared for wintering. The most important aspects of his training are: insulation, additional lighting and fresh bedding. Below you can read more about each individual aspect of the arrangement of such a room.
If excessively cold winters are not characteristic of your area, then it will be sufficient to produce only a few manipulations, the complex of which is called natural heating, preventing excessive heat loss.
These include the following activities:
- caulk all the holes and holes in the house, except for the ventilation,
- warm the outer walls with materials designed to conserve heat (foam, glass wool, foam concrete, etc.),
- close all window openings with thick cloth or a thick layer of polyethylene,
- Try to reduce the time during which the door to the house will be open to the minimum.
- electric heaters
- gas boilers
- lamps and other infrared devices,
- wood stoves,
- thermal collectors.
When installing any heat-generating device in the room, special attention should be paid to security measures and special attention should be paid so that your turkeys cannot harm themselves with its help. For example, if you made the decision to heat a poultry house with a stove, it must be installed in such a way that the bird itself could not get to the parts overheating during its operation.
The legs of turkeys are the most tender part of their bodies. If you allow excessive hypothermia legs turkeys, then this will inevitably be followed by a series of various diseases, which often can result in the death of a bird. To prevent this from occurring, it is recommended that you regularly lay the floor in your house with bedding. It should be noted that if the room has a wooden floor on a solid foundation, you can do without it.
The litter may consist of dry hay, straw, sawdust or peat. Layer thickness should be at least 2–3 centimeters, in addition, it is necessary to ensure uniform distribution of litter over the entire area of the room. The litter of hay or straw will need to be changed at least once every 10 days, and that consisting of sawdust or peat can be removed a little less often - once every three weeks. Such a frequent change of material is designed to prevent the development of fungal and infectious diseases among members of the pack.
What temperature can turkeys withstand walking in winter
Turkeys are birds that, unlike chickens and geese, are able to withstand sufficiently low air temperatures. The main condition for maintaining the vitality and health of turkeys while walking in the street is snow-covered walking ground. This is due primarily to the fact that the turkeys' legs are not covered with feathering and do not have serious muscle and fat mass and, accordingly, are prone to various kinds of hypothermia and frostbite, which can significantly harm the birds.
In addition, it must be remembered that turkeys extremely negatively tolerate windy weather and various drafts, especially in combination with sub-zero temperatures, therefore it is necessary to try to let them walk only in the absence of wind. The average temperature that these birds are able to withstand without harm to their organisms on the range is -12. -17 ° C.
Sand and ash baths for the prevention of parasites
In the cold season, any poultry needs additional protection against a variety of parasites. The most common type of parasite found on any poultry with developed plumage is a variety of fluff eaters. In total, about 17 species of these insects that are actively parasitic on turkeys are known to modern science.
Since the immune system of your wards and their organisms as a whole are not in the most active state (due to the molting period, reducing the percentage of green fodder in the diet and slowing down the metabolic processes in the body), it will not be superfluous to help the birds deal with the parasites ash baths.
It is quite simple to organize such a preventive measure - it’s enough to place large (within such birds so that the bird can fit in them) containers and fill them with a mixture of sand, dry wood ash and dry clay in proportions 1: 1: 1. If parasites suddenly begin to annoy the animal, then it will independently start fighting with them, conducting “bathing” sessions (allowing the sand streams to move freely between the feathers). This will effectively clean the birds' feathers from parasites, larvae and their eggs.
How to feed turkeys in the winter at home
If during the summer period most of the day turkeys are fed using the grazing method and can be fed only once, then in winter you will have to significantly increase feed costs. Below you will find approximate recommendations on how to make turkey menu in winter:
- It must be remembered that birds should eat at least three times a day, preferably at the same time.
- In addition to the feed, the feeder also needs to add a small amount of fine gravel and stones, which are necessary for birds to work properly in their digestive system.
- All feeders should be located so that each bird has the opportunity to find a place for them, as far as possible from the walls and, in the event that there are several of them, from each other.
The diet of turkeys in the winter should be largely flavored with a large number of different protein components, but not of animal origin, since this species of birds does not tolerate the consumption of any food of an animal nature. In the morning and for evening feeding, feathery should be given a variety of grains (wheat, barley, oats, rye, etc.) or mixed feed, and at lunchtime it is better to feed them with some mash or wet food. Here is a list of wet feeds available in winter:
- potato and its cleaning (only not green!),
- boiled carrots
- ground beetroot
- hay and dry herbs (exclusively steamed),
- cabbage leaf,
- various chestnuts and acorns,
- needles from coniferous trees.
Wet mash is prepared from any crushed grain or porridge with the addition of any of the above listed wet ingredients. Care must be taken to ensure that the mash does not get too wet, because then it can get into the nostrils of birds and provoke the development of the inflammatory process.
To check for humidity, it is recommended to take a small amount of the mash in the hand and squeeze it into a fist. If the food crumbles, it can be given to birds, and if it spreads, it will need to thicken further.
Video: winter turkeys
So, we hope that this article answered all your questions regarding the content of turkeys in a home farm in the winter. Remember, only paying enough attention and care to your birds, you can count on substantial profits and the development of your business. Carefully monitor the health of the wards, keep them in decent conditions and they will definitely give you back your care a hundredfold!
Lighting and daylight
If there are small windows in the house, the young bird can be maintained in the winter without additional artificial lighting. If there are no windows, it is enough to turn on the light for 5-7 hours. But a completely different light regime is required by adults. For females and for males it is very important to maintain the length of daylight about 14 hours a day. If it's sunny outside, you can let the birds out for a walk in the afternoon, thereby saving energy.
If you want the turkeys to fly, it is worth gradually increasing the “day”, for example, starting a month before the planned egg-laying. The same applies to males. Cold and darkness affect them extremely negatively, therefore, for a good fertilization of eggs, the long light regime is also important for them.
Since the bird needs more energy to warm it in winter, therefore, special attention should be paid to the winter diet of turkeys. There is no longer just one green or grain, as in summer. В холодное время года индюшек кормят три раза в день: утром и вечером сухим кормом (зерно, комбикорм), днем – влажные мешанки. Основа зимнего зернового меню – это ячмень, пшеница и кукуруза. Эти зерна богаты клетчаткой, углеводами и дают много энергии.
Обязательно зимой индюкам нужно давать сочные корма. It can be shredded carrots, beets, as well as steamed chop of alfalfa or clover. Chopped chestnuts and acorns can be given as a top dressing during the day, about 30-40 pieces per day.
Do not forget about the vitamins that are contained in green plants. Of course, in the winter there is no grass, so the birds collect the gifts of the forest. It can be branches of any needles: spruce, pine. They contain a lot of useful carotene, as well as vitamin C. The branches should be crushed and left in a closed trough for about one hour. Then add to wet mash 10 grams per bird.
As an additional source of carotene and vitamin C, turkeys can be given rowan berries (about 10 berries to one bird). Do not forget to prepare dried brooms in the summer. The most useful and tasty is dried nettle, as well as birch. The leaves can be added to the mash, as well as hung in the usual dry form, like a broom. For example, they let the birds go out into the yard and leave them to be eaten by one broom.
Sand ash bath
Since birds spend most of their time indoors in winter, parasites can be found in feathers. As a preventive measure, do not forget to leave the turkeys ash and sand bath. Like chickens, they also need fine gravel. In a separate trough pour shell, chalk or crushed charcoal.
Turkeys more than any other domestic birds are prone to obesity, so winter walks in the fresh air they simply need. If there are no severe frosts, the bird should walk for at least 2 hours a day. To do this, it is good to provide a small aviary from the south side of the house. Only necessarily on the site for walking, you must first remove the snow. As we have said, turkey legs are very sensitive to cold.
Birds should also receive vitamin D, so if the sun is outside, a walk is required. In warm weather on a dry bedding in the aviary turkeys can spend the whole day. If, for example, you live in a region where there are few sunny days in winter, you should add fish oil to a wet mash, but not more than 2 grams per individual. As you can see, even in winter, turkeys are unpretentious in content. If you are a novice farmer, then you can successfully take care of a couple of dozen birds.
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