Mountain pine: description of the plantThe mountain pine (Pinus mugo) is a shrub species of thick pine, although it is trees that are more common in the wild. The height of the shrubs reach 4-5 m, and the trees - 7-8 m. Shoots at the mountain pine - short, creeping along the ground and curved to the top. The root system is superficial, strongly branched. The needles have a dark green color. The length of the needles is up to 4 cm. They are collected in bundles of two pieces, slightly twisted. Their lifespan is from 3 to 5 years. At six or eight, cones appear on a pine tree, which add decorativeness to the tree. They are cone-shaped, light brown in color, 3-6 cm in length.
Pine Pinus mugo has a number of advantages:
- has a good degree of winter hardiness
- drought resistant
- wind resistant due to strong root system
- has strong branches that do not break off under the snow cover,
- undemanding to the composition of the soil,
- tolerates pruning,
- fewer other types of pine trees are affected by diseases and pests,
- suitable for planting in urban environments, resistant to air pollution,
- long-liver - can live for 1000 years.
Mountain pine breeding occurs in three ways: cuttings, grafting and seeds. Slow growth rates are typical for the ephedra: the annual growth is 10 cm in height and 15 cm in width. At the age of ten, the tree reaches a maximum height of 0.6-1 m, with a diameter of 0.6-1.8 m.
Mountain pine has several subspecies and ornamental varieties, but we will now describe only some of the most interesting ones.Of the subspecies emit:trees, multilateral and elfin shrubs. In the gardens, the most common are shrub (mugus) and elfin (pumilio) forms. Both the first and second have many varieties. These are mainly dwarf and ground cover shrubs. They have different forms of crown (spherical, pillow, columnar, etc.), height (from 40 cm to 4 m), color of needles (bright green, dark green, gray, golden).
Variety "Dwarf". The shrub grows up to 2 m in height. It has a spherical crown. Needles - dark green. It is used in single landings and groups on the ground lawn, rocky areas. Also planted in containers, on the roofs.
Variety "Pug". Dwarf shrubs, reaching a height of 1.5 m. The height and diameter of the crown are usually the same size. The crown grows as a ball. Branches densely branched. The needles are dark green, straight, 2-4 cm long. Designers prefer to grow this variety as a tapeworm, in groups in rocky gardens.
Variety "Mini Pug." Presented by a dwarf shrub, 40-60 cm high. The crown grows up to 1 m in diameter and has a pillow shape. Needles - dark green, needle. Suitable for planting in light shade. Apply in single and group landings on stony hills.
Variety "Kolumnaris." The maximum height of the shrubs of this species is 2.5 m, the diameter of the crown is up to 3 m. The crown is narrowly coniferous, the needles are dark green, and needle-like. Suitable for planting soliter and groups, in rocky gardens, on the slopes.
Variety "Winter Gold." Dwarf shrub with a spherical crown. The needles change color depending on the season: in the summer it is light green, in the fall it is golden yellow. The plant reaches a height of 50 cm and a diameter of 1 m.
Variety "Compact". The original tree height of 4-5 m, multi-barreled. Crown in the form of a ball. The needles are painted in a dark green color, 2.5-3.5 cm long. Recommended for planting in alpine hills, singly and in groups.
Variety "Frisia". Reaches sizes up to 2 m. It has a dense, strongly branched crown and straight branches. It is used in single and group plantings on stony territories, and also as an interior plant.
Variety "Ofir." Interesting due to the form resembling a pin. In size, this pine is miniature - 0.4 m high and 0.6 m wide. At the top, the needles are golden yellow, the branches located in the shade and the inside of the crown are bright green.
Seedling selection rules
When choosing a tree for planting, pay attention to the fact that its appearance in general speaks about health and normal development. The tips of the needles should not be dry or yellow. Before you plant a mountain pine, decide whether you will buy a seedling with an open root system or with a closed one. The last option is a tree in a pot that can better tolerate planting and adapt more quickly to new conditions.
For planting, it is better to choose young seedlings, up to five years old. With special care you need to inspect the root system of the seedling, as it should be free from damage and rot. If you buy a tree in a container, then it is important that it be grown in this container, and not planted in it shortly before it goes on sale. A simple method will help determine this: if the roots look out from the drainage holes of the container, then the plant has grown in it.
What should be the ground for planting mountain pine
Mountain pine can grow on any soil, even very poor. It does not pay attention to the acidity of the earth, but the most decorative and well-developed plant will be when planted in sandy and sandy sandy soils, with a weak acid reaction. If the ground for pine contains too much sand, you can add clay to it.
The scheme of planting mountain pine seedlings
Here is a diagram of how to plant a mountain pine. To do this, you need to dig a hole a little larger than an earthen ball - optimally 7-10 cm wide. The depth of the pit should be 0.8-1 m. The bottom is covered with a 20-centimeter layer of drainage from gravel, small stones, broken brick, expanded clay, etc. This is necessary to prevent root rot. On the drainage poured the soil mixture.
For planting pine seedlings use a substrate consisting of:
- sod land - 2 parts,
- sand (clay) - 1 part.
That's the whole technology, how to plant pine mountain in spring. The first time after planting a young bush will need to pritenyat from the sun's rays, using spruce branches or spunbond. Plants up to 5 years old usually easily tolerate transplantation, quickly take root in a new area, so for them you can change the planting place several times. Older specimens will take longer and more difficult to take root in a new place, so they need to immediately pick up an area for permanent growth. Otherwise, before transplanting you will have to prepare the root system in a special way or freeze it with an earthen clod.
Mountain pine care
Caring for the mountain pine will not make any special difficulties, because the plant is not demanding for irrigation and easily tolerates drought. The soil moisture level must be monitored when growing young plants. The first month they need to be watered once a week, using 1-2 buckets of water for one tree. In the future, watering will be required only in long, dry periods. With a strong compaction of the soil will need its loosening. However, it is necessary to take into account the factor that the root system of the plant is located quite close to the soil surface.
Rules for feeding mountain pine
Here's how to fertilize pine:
- nitroammofoskoy (40 g) or other nitrogen fertilizer during planting, is introduced into the pit,
- in the spring, in the first and second year of life, complex mineral fertilizers in the tree trunk circle (for example, “Kemira-universal”, at the rate of 30-40 g per plant).
Two years after planting, the pine tree will no longer need fertilizers, as it is able to use the nutrients that accumulate in the thick coniferous bedding under it.
Pruning plantsSince the crowns of decorative pines are so beautiful, they usually do not require a special haircut. Neat form can be formed by trimming or pinching young shoots by one third. So the crown will become more dense, and the shoots will slow growth. In the spring remove frozen and dried branches. Mountain pine tolerates frost well, but young plants require shelter. Also in the first two years they should be covered from the sun, starting in February. Like all conifers, pine is subject to spring sunburn of pine needles.
How mountain pine breeds
Mountain pine propagated by seeds, cuttings and grafts. The simplest and most common way is to grow seedlings from seeds. These pines practically do not give in to cuttings. At least, so far it has not been possible to successfully plant a pine variety Mugus in a similar way. Therefore, when breeding plants, preference is given to other methods.
Seed propagationSeed propagation is the simplest and most acceptable way to plant a beautiful and healthy pine. With such planting trees completely retain their decorative. Briefly describe the process of reproduction of pine sowing seeds. They can be sown both directly in open ground and in boxes, and in the second case, the percentage germination will be large. Ripening of pine seeds occurs in the second year after pollination. Seeds of double-coniferous species would be better to stratify beforehand for 30 days, although it is possible to do without stratification. Planted better in the spring. Pyatikhvarnik sow in the fall, at least in the spring. Their seeds are amenable to longer stratification - for 4-5 months.
When sowing in closed ground, use boxes made of any materials. They pre-make drainage holes. The substrate should be light and loose. It is advisable to sprinkle peat on top of it in order to avoid the development of fungal diseases. Also, the soil must be kept in the oven for disinfection. Seeds are disinfected in a solution of "Fundazol" or "Fitosporin". In the boxes they are sown shallowly, at a distance of 5 cm from each other. Also, seed can be simply poured onto the soil, and then slightly loosened. Capacity cover with foil. Sprouts should appear within a month. After that, they will need to open and water regularly. In the open ground well-rooted seedlings can be moved in 1-2 years. When transplanting the root system is not bare.
Mountain pine, however, as well as pine, reproduction by cuttings does not tolerate well. This happens due to the fact that with this method the tree is difficult to root. 7-10 cm long cuttings are taken only from saplings, from annual upright branches in late April. They are cut off along with a part of the bark of the trunk - the heel. Then for three days, it is advisable to hold them in a container with water and 12 hours in a solution that stimulates root growth. When breeding pines with cuttings, a container with a substrate of earth, peat and sand is prepared in advance. At the bottom is laid drainage. The cuttings go deeper by 4–5 cm. The distance between them is kept within 10 cm. Then it is necessary to organize a greenhouse with lower heating. At home, the temperature at the bottom of the tank can be maintained by placing it in a box with compost, manure or dry leaves. If the cuttings are planted in spring, then rooting should be expected only at the end of the autumn of next year. When grafting in open ground, the lower layer of soil is covered with drainage from gravel or gravel. The beds are laid in layers: compost, soil mixture, sand. The bottom of the cuttings is treated with "Zircon" or "Epin." Rooting occurs within 5-6 months.
High grades can be propagated by grafting, and four-year-old seedlings are taken for stock. It is quite difficult to carry out the inoculation, and one more article will be required for a detailed description of the process of how the pine reproduces by this method. The advantages of reproduction by grafting are that the young tree adopts all the varietal qualities of the mother plant. When used in landscape design, mountain pine is planted in rock gardens, when planting slopes, in hedges, and is also used to fix the soil. It looks beautiful both as a tapeworm and in group plantings. It goes well with birch, larch, spruce, Balkan pines.
Sold in virtually every garden center, and the price of these trees is quite affordable.
When buying a mountain pine should be borne in mind that in the adult state it can be of different sizes and shapes:
- Branchy bush
- Small tree
- Groundcover form.
Among the features of mountain pine, the following points should be highlighted:
- Compact tree,
- Branched base, unlike many other species of pines,
- Does not clutter up the plot,
- In the adult state does not "go" up.
To plant a cedar, you can purchase a sapling or grow a tree from a pine nut. Unlike the previous species of pine, cedar grows much larger. Among the features of the tree are the following points:
- It remains decorative for many years, even without the intervention of a gardener.
- Green needles adorn the trunk to its very foundation.
You can buy a seedling in any garden store. However, it is much more interesting to grow such a pine tree with your own hands from a seed. Cones for this, it is desirable to collect in February in March.
Saplings in the first year may die from the "black leg".
To prevent this disease, the seedling should be watered with a phytosporin solution.
The features of an ordinary pine include the following points:
Before planting a pine in the country, you should make sure that the root system of the plants is not damaged. You can land in the second half of April and early May, or at the end of September and early October.
Instructions for the implementation of landing as follows:
- The first step is to choose a place for the trees. Since pine loves sunlight, the playground should be unshadowed.
- Next you need to dig holes. If several seedlings are planted, the distance between the pits should be at least four meters. Their size should be such that the root is freely placed in the hole.
- After that, in the hole you need to add a little mineral fertilizer and pour a bucket of water.
- Then the hole must be carefully covered with earth. If the seedling was dug in the forest, the root should first be sprinkled with earth from the forest, and then with ordinary soil.
- The land around the plant must be carefully trampled to eliminate all air spaces, and once again pour water.
When transplanting plants from the forest, you should mark its orientation to the cardinal points, and keep it in a new place.
At this process of planting pine completed. If you want to go all the way from the beginning to the end, i.e. to grow seedlings from seeds, then for this you need to prepare boxes of soil in which the seeds are planted. The soil should be loose, sprinkled with peat on top.
To accelerate the germination of seeds, it is necessary to provide a contrast of temperatures. To do this, you can briefly put the seeds in the freezer, then rinse them with warm water.
Seeds should be sown shallowly. You can even simply pour them on the prepared soil and then loosen it. It is necessary to ensure the interval between the seeds of at least 5 mm. If you do not do this, germinated seedlings will raise the ground, causing the roots of the seedlings to wither.
It is possible to transplant the sprouted saplings on a constant place in a year. The best time for this, as mentioned above, is April or May.
If you purchased a plot for a dacha without buildings, but you want to build a house as soon as possible and begin landscaping the estate, you should pay attention to the summer houses from the block-containers.
Unlike traditional buildings made of brick or even timber, these country houses are being built much faster.
Caring for a pine in the country does not take much time, as the tree does not need pruning. The only thing to slow growth, and that the crown was more dense, young branches can be broken off by two thirds of their fingers, from their length.
Growing pines does not require additional watering, as the plant is drought-resistant. In addition, fallen needles contribute to the retention of moisture. The exception is the Rumilean pine, which must be watered several times per season (15-20 liters of water per plant).
In addition, newly planted seedlings need watering. This procedure is performed once after the end of the leaf fall. Watering is needed for the reason that wet soil freezes through less.
Young seedlings need feeding in the first two years after planting. To do this, make mineral fertilizers in the subbarrelled circle - 40 grams per square meter.
For the further development of the tree is enough organic fertilizer accumulated in the coniferous litter.
On the photo - sacks covered with sacking
Укрывание на зиму
Mature trees do not need shelter for the winter, but recently planted young pines should be sheltered. Typically, laptnik is used for these purposes, which in the late fall cover the crowns of seedlings. Alternatively, you can use burlap or special covers.
The most important thing - do not try to cover the seedlings with polyethylene, as this will lead to their evaporation.
Here, perhaps, all the main points of growing pines. When the trees grow, you can set up an arbor among them and gather there in the evening with your family for a tea party. True, for this you should worry about lighting the gazebo at the dacha.
If there is no electricity in the country, you can install your own diesel generator.
Of course, such equipment is quite expensive, so the rent of a diesel generator to give can be a solution.
Choosing a seedling, cut the turf around the perimeter with a shovel, penetrating the shovel as deep as possible into the soil. After that, use the shovel as a lever to tear off and lift a clod of earth with roots.
Put a wet cloth under the spade, straighten it and put a com on it. Wrap the cloth tightly around the coma and, holding it, pull out the pine.
First of all, you can remove the clod of earth without damaging it. Secondly, tightly wrapped and tied fabric will not allow anyone to fall apart during transport.
And, finally, it will avoid the drying of the root.
If you use a thin cotton sheet, then the seedling can be lowered into the planting hole right in it - the fabric will quickly rot and will not interfere with the growth of the roots.
The dug up tree is ready for transportation
Having brought the tree to the landing site, we pour out a half-bucket of water into the landing pit and simply drop the seedling there. If the size of the coma is different from the landing pit, add or remove the required amount of land.
We water a landing hole
Note: the root neck cannot be buried (i.e. the place where the trunk of the tree begins to branch and passes into the roots), it should be at ground level.
Otherwise, it rots, and the tree dies.
If you transplant a tree with a dense, unbroken clod of earth, the problem with determining the depth at which the root neck should be located is automatically eliminated.
After landing, we gurgle the earth around the trunk. Mulch, as you probably know, helps retain moisture, prevents weed germination and, slowly rotting, works as a soft fertilizer. For mulching, we collected fallen pine needles.
We mulch the earth around
Finally, water the seedling, even if the ground is wet. Watering not only provides a reserve of water, but also improves the contact of the roots with the soil, which means that it creates more favorable conditions for feeding and restoring damage. Watering preferably watering with a nozzle, so as not to erode the soil.
If you want to plant several pines, place the following approximately four meters from the first one. If you plant trees too close, they will interfere with each other when they grow up.
We choose the time for landing
The best time for planting pine trees is spring or autumn, as well as for planting all the trees. In the summer, planting is not worth it, because during active growth the plant needs a lot of moisture, and the transplant injures the root system, which dries out. In a pine tree, such a period lasts from the moment of formation of new shoots until their complete lignification.
Experienced gardeners recommend planting a pine tree somewhere in the middle of spring. Over the summer, the plant is fully adaptable and will meet well the winter. If planting is planned for autumn, then it should be carried out at the moment when the tree is preparing for rest. During this period, all processes slow down, and the plant tolerates transplant well.
If the time for planting is missed, the plant did not have time to be planted in spring or early autumn, then the procedure can be carried out later, with the onset of sustained frosts. After planting, it is necessary to cover the sapling, otherwise it will not survive the winter. For this fit any covering materials or spruce branches. With the arrival of spring, all protection is removed. This should be done after the snow has melted.
How to get a seedling for planting
Planting material can be purchased at the nursery, which significantly saves time on cultivation. Purchased trees are completely healthy, their root system is in excellent condition, and caring staff will give all the necessary advice on care.
The simplest, at first glance, way is to dig up a seedling in “wildlife”. But there are its own "pitfalls".
• Simplicity is that you do not need to spend money on a sapling, but that’s what it ends up with.
• Digging and transporting a young tree hurts the roots, there is no guarantee of a successful planting.
• Select a tree is very difficult, you can not take what will fall. It is better to dig up young shoots that will die in the forest due to lack of light.
• The disadvantage of such seedlings is their structure, they do not always grow vertically upwards, many are twisted. It does not look quite aesthetically pleasing when landing on an even prepared plot.
With forest saplings a lot of trouble, which, sometimes, not under the force of the gardener. The root system of such a tree does not always tolerate transplanting. When transporting seedlings need to keep a room with the earth, otherwise the plant will die.
Some lovers grow seedlings on their own from seeds. It is very exciting, but very long. If you have the desire and time, you can try this technology. To do this, pick up seeds that are sown in loose nutrient soil. Before sowing, they must be washed in a solution of potassium permanganate, as they may be infected with blast. The first shoots will appear no earlier than a month. Caring for seedlings includes watering with potassium permanganate, weeding and frost shelter. With proper care and dressing in five years, you can plant a plant in the garden. Young plants grown from seed need additional shelter for the winter.
Choosing a place for planting pine
Pine belongs to the light-loving plants, but young seedlings still better pritenyat. In their natural environment, they do not grow in open areas, but are under the shade of mature trees. Therefore, to pick a place for planting should be bright, but without direct sunlight.
An evergreen plant prefers sandy soils. In areas with heavy soil, it is imperative to make a drainage. To do this, in the landing pit, you can put a layer of broken brick.
Choosing a place for planting pine trees, you need to consider the location of the roots in the soil. Most of them are in the upper layer, at a depth of about 50 cm. If the groundwater is high, there is a risk of damage to the root system. A few years later, the pine may die.
Planting pine seedlings (photo)
The planting pit should be larger than the root system of the plant. At the bottom of the pit lay a layer of drainage, add mineral fertilizers for coniferous plants, you can use mature compost.
Before planting you need to check the sapling. After all, the "dead" tree long keeps its presentation. Yellow needles and brittle branches should be alarming. Such a plant is not necessary to plant.
The landing pit is filled with water by a third and the seedling is lowered. When planting, pay attention to the root neck, it should be flush with the ground. If you bury it during planting, the tree will rot and die.
After planting the pine, the soil is well mulched with needles that help retain the necessary moisture. In the process of growing mulch is added, rotting, it feeds the tree with all necessary, inhibits the growth of weeds.
If the site is planned to plant more than one tree, then you need to think about their location in advance. The distance between plants must be at least 4 meters, otherwise mature trees will interfere with each other.
Care of pine seedlings (photo)
Young plants suffer from the spring sunlight, which have a destructive effect on the needles. To protect the pine, you need to cover the branches in spring with spruce branches. Mature plants tolerate winters well and do not need shelters.
Pine is undemanding to care. All she needs is timely watering, loosening the soil, removing broken branches, forming a crown.
Pine is a very tall and beautiful tree, but over time it can give too much shade, blocking the light of other shrubs and flowers. Experienced gardeners resort to the formation of the crown, the tree regularly pinch and prune. This limits the growth of pine.
When pruning and molding need to shorten not only the upper branches. For a beautiful crown need to prune all the shoots.
Important!The top of the tree can not be cut, otherwise the trunk is split, the appearance will be spoiled.
In the spring, it is necessary to prune the lower branches, since it is they who begin to dry out first. Young shoots are shortened by a third growth.
Departure after landing
Special care for pine planted on your site is not required.
Warm the tree before winter, if planted in late autumn, close from the bright spring sun, mulch the tree trunk, clean large grass around, water during particularly dry periods (mulch will help fight the drought), clean dried and sick branches.
Properly planted pines will long please you with their evergreen outfit.