Raspberries - a very useful plant, which can be seen on almost every household plot. This is a perennial shrub reaching over two meters in height.
Usually planting raspberries can be seen along the fences, but this is not the most suitable place for this plant. Ideal if you choose a bright place in the corner of your site on your site. It is where a large amount of snow accumulates in winter.
It is better to plant raspberries in the autumn time, the most optimal time is from mid-September to mid-October. Soil is preliminarily prepared in which complex mineral fertilizers are applied. Root offsprings can be planted in rows, the distance in the row between the plants is 50 cm, and between the rows 2 - 2.5 meters. Raspberry does not tolerate overmoistened soils, but at the same time it prefers soils with a high moisture content, so do not let it dry out. In order to retain moisture in the soil, you can simply mulch the plantings, sprinkle the planting on top with either peat or sawdust, in order to keep as much moisture as possible in the soil.
The peculiarity of the raspberry is that it gives the harvest on the twigs of the second year. In the first year, shoots come from the root offsprings, which grow well in the year of planting, and in the second year they produce flowers and fruits. After the harvest has been harvested from the branch in the fall, this branch can be completely removed, and in the springtime, sanitary pruning can be carried out, removing the dried and broken branches.
At one place raspberry grows well no more than 10 - 12 years. After this period, it is advisable to change the planting site, select a new site, prepare the soil and plant root suckers. Ideally, in your backyard you will grow several varieties of raspberry of different ripening times.
Raspberry responds well to fertilization. And if you, before laying a plantation, bring in compost or old humus (by the way, humus cannot be introduced fresh, but only rotted), approximately 3 years at the rate of 10 kg per 1 sq. Km. meter, then micro-and macro elements are enough for normal growth and development for several years. If this is not possible, then it is desirable to apply fertilizer in the spring-summer period. In this case, you can also use complex fertilizers, both in liquid and in dry form. If you apply liquid fertilizer, for example, dilute “Kemira Lux”, then a few hours before this, the soil should be well shed with water so as not to cause a burn of the root system. Sometimes novice gardeners overdo it with a dose of fertilizer, so in order not to destroy the plant, it is better to sprinkle the planting with clean water in advance.
Raspberries are rarely affected by diseases and pests, but if you suddenly notice some kind of plaque, such as a fungal disease or have noticed aphid, then in this case it is impossible to treat with chemicals, as this culture is skoroplodnaya and quickly matures, it is better to use folk methods. From fungal diseases, plants can be treated with an ash-soap extract. To do this, 300 grams of ash dissolved in 10 liters of water, insist about 3 to 4 hours, add a little household or liquid soap and carry out processing. Aphids and other insect pests can be treated with a biological preparation called “fitoverm”, it is safe for humans and warm-blooded animals and kills insects on the second - third day. As for folk methods, you can use mustard, in relation to water 1/100, or carry out processing with bitter pepper.
This article has helped many gardeners to stop straining at their site and at the same time receive a generous harvest.
I never would have thought that in order to get the best harvest in my backyard during my entire dacha career, all I had to do was stop picking on the beds and trust in nature. How many can remember, every summer I spent in the country. First on the parent, and then my husband and I bought ours. From early spring to late autumn, all free time was spent on planting, weeding, garter, pruning, watering, harvesting and, finally, conservation and attempts to preserve the crop until next year. And so in a circle.
By planting bushes should start in the fall, optimally from mid-September to mid-October. Mineral fertilizers are pre-applied to the soil. Between the plants in a row, keep a distance of 50 cm, and between rows - 2-2.5 meters.
Growing raspberry raspberry
Growing raspberries on the plot requires following a few simple rules:
- the soil under raspberry bushes should not dry out, because to preserve moisture, it should be mulched with sawdust or peat,
- it is worth knowing that raspberries produce crops on the branches of the second year of growth,
- after harvesting it is removed from the branch,
- raspberry grows well in the same place for 10-12 years, after which you should change the place of planting,
- raspberry loves fertilizers, but it is not recommended to apply them right away: first, you need to shed bushes with ordinary water and only after a few hours with water with fertilizer diluted in it, this will help avoid root burn,
- raspberries are a ripening plant, therefore, if pests or diseases are found on them, you should not use chemicals; it is better to use traditional methods of getting rid of pests.
It was very helpful to read this article on raspberry cultivation. I love it, but most of the bushes in my raspberry berry have a dried small bezel near the stem. What is this disease and how to get rid of it? Could you please tell me?
It is very difficult to give advice and determine the cause of the disease without looking. However, I will try. If the bushes are more or less healthy, the leaves are not affected, then raspberries obviously experience some discomfort during the growing season, and she does not have enough strength to set a normal amount of berries. First of all, I would give maximum attention to agricultural technology - protection from cold weather, watering, top dressing, etc. Very often, after active care, the plants themselves find the strength to overcome ailments and begin to bear fruit normally. In any case, it was with me. ))) If you find an opportunity to send me a photo, you can figure it out more thoroughly.
Choosing a landing site
Raspberries, the cultivation and care of which are not particularly complex, can surprise with tasty and fragrant berries. It is necessary to give her a little time and effort that will pay off a hundredfold. For the landing of raspberries, a flat area with good lighting and moisture permeability is selected, protected from northern winds.
Raspberry is a moisture-loving plant, its yield depends largely on sufficient and timely watering during flowering and before harvesting.
What to consider when choosing a method of growing raspberries
To date, practiced four methods of growing raspberries:
- tape, when the width of stands reaches 30-40 cm,
- breeding, with placement in rows of single bushes,
- on the trellis,
- without the use of garter shoots.
Ribbon option cultivation involves the formation of a wide strip of shoots, form it at the expense of root shoots uterine bushes. Depending on the branching activity of the shoots and the height, they regulate their number: it is desirable that the remaining number of shoots makes it possible to get the maximum number of fruits, while allowing each branch to get enough sunlight and heat.
Since modern raspberry varieties have significant differences in the height of fruit branches, their number and branching, the formation of ribbons from the shoots should be approached taking into account the characteristics of each of the varieties.
Nest method usually used if the beds are very small. For the garters of each bush a separate peg is used. The recommended distance between the bushes is one and a half meters, but it can increase depending on the length of the shoots that the planted variety gives. It is easy to care for such plantings, problems may arise if heavy rains occur during the fruiting period - the bushes are weakly aired and the berries inside them can be affected by mold.
When growing raspberries on narrow trellis seedlings are planted in a row at a given distance, a certain distance between rows is also maintained. The method will require the installation of supports along each row and the manufacture of a tapestry, which is usually a well-stretched metal wire.
- in a uniform distribution of shoots of replacement by wire,
- removing branches that spawn at ground level - it will not be possible to get the berries out of them, but they will thicken the bush and take some of the nutrients from it,
- removing excess root shoots with a sharp spade or pruner - a large amount of it can significantly reduce yields.
The method allows you to maintain the individuality of each bush, to achieve its high-quality light, and hence the excellent yield. Also significantly reduced the need for processing plants from pests and diseases.
The least effective in practice is growing raspberries without a garter:
- shoots form dense thickets
- branches with a crop fall on the ground, thereby causing damage to the berries,
- strong shading reduces the very possibility of budding on the shoots.
If, when growing the same large-fruited variety on a trellis, you can get about 200 kg of berries, then when you tackle the stakes, the harvest will drop about 3 times, and when grown without a garter - 6 times.
Growing raspberries - secrets from experienced gardeners who will help you get high yields
Gardeners who have recently started growing raspberries often complain of failures:
- berries damage insects,
- bushes grow poorly or vice versa
- shoots grow extremely actively, but do not bear fruit.
In this case, the variety is usually blamed, attempts are being made to replace the plants with new ones. But before taking radical measures, it is necessary to analyze the reason, perhaps the matter is not at all in the grade, but in the wrong care?
Raspberry care - terms of dressing and watering
To ensure the active development and fruiting of the raspberry bush, it should be supplied with nutrients and water. Therefore, a mandatory procedure should be the introduction of a sufficient amount of organic and mineral fertilizers into the soil. The main ones are potash and nitrogen, phosphorus should not exceed 1/3 of the applied potash and nitrogen. Feeding slurry can be performed:
- the first - in the period of bud break,
- the second after 10 days,
- the third after another 2 weeks.
After fruiting, the plant will also need to replenish nutrients. During this period, you can use liquid dressing, with the following composition:
- potassium sulfate - 15 gr,
- double superphosphate - 30 gr,
- water - 10 l.
As feed you can use a solution of nitroammofoski, mullein, diluted in a ratio of 1: 6, chicken manure, diluted 1:12. First, the plant is abundantly watered, then make nutrient mixture, about 2 liters under each bush.
For normal fruiting for the season you will need to perform 3-4 dressing and 6-7 full watering. Watering should be carried out throughout the season, in a timely manner, in quantities that allow you to keep the soil moist.
Also useful is the introduction of wood, obtained from hardwood, ash in the amount of 200 grams per 1 sq. M.
growing raspberries - how to loosen the soil
Loosening the beds with the onset of the first spring after planting is carried out in the earliest terms - so as not to harm the resulting root processes. The depth of loosening in rows should be about 6-8 cm, between rows - up to 12 cm. Weeding can be repeated several times during the summer, as the peel forms after weeding and the weeds emerge, but the maximum loosening depth should not exceed 5 cm.
Before wintering, they dig up the site - in rows to a depth of 10 cm, between rows - by 15 cm. It is necessary to ensure that when digging, the skeletal roots of plants are not damaged, it is best to dig not with a shovel but with a fork. During the season, it is necessary to constantly remove seedlings, only planted bushes should remain. The thickening of the plant results in the grinding of the fruit, since growth from roots can take up to 50% of nutrients and moisture from plants.
The best option is to leave on each bush about 7 shoots of replacement - this will allow getting large enough berries throughout each harvest.
Experts say that crimson bushes are not prone to complete degeneration, but root buds on them can mutate, usually for the worse. You can notice this negative phenomenon when flowering - sepals will not be long. Council - such bushes should be completely removed - large-fruited varieties should initially have elongated sepals. For repair raspberry varieties, this change is not significant.
Since it is almost impossible to predict how cold the winter will be, when growing raspberries in a middle lane, you will need to take care of its reliable protection against frostbite.
Such a simple technique, such as bending the shoots to the ground and fixing them above the ground surface, with the help of available tools (boards, logs, metal brackets) will make it possible for the winter to fall asleep with a layer of snow half a meter thick. The bushes prepared in this way are practically susceptible to frostbite, in practice it has been proven that they even withstand the harsh Siberian winters. Raspberries should be opened during the period when the threat of late frosts has passed.
The ripening of the berries of the first harvest of raspberries begins in late June.
This happens throughout the month. Since raspberries are distinguished by very tender fruits not intended for long-term storage, the berries should be harvested systematically, as they mature, without perederzhivaya them on the stems.
If you want to dissolve new varieties of raspberries have to buy seedlings. It is best to contact specialized nurseries - the planting material there is of sufficiently high quality.
If on the site is already grown suitable varieties, then you can use the vegetative method of reproduction and use the bushes formed from root processes. In addition, you can perform the usual division of the bush into several parts, but the bushes for this should choose the most powerful. Processes for transplantation should be chosen such that have a shoot thickness of more than 1 cm and a similar sponge, thick root system.
The productive period of raspberry bushes ranges from 12 to 20 years, while the features of the raspberry variety, proper care, frost resistance and the quality of tillage play a role.