Turkish carnation is a long-time favorite of gardeners. It is difficult to imagine any flower bed without this charming flower of the most varied shades.
Besides beauty, Turkish carnation has a number of other wonderful qualities - it is unpretentiousness, cold resistance and shade tolerance.
These indisputable advantages provided the carnation with the love of flower growers for long times.
What do we know about garden beauty
Turkish carnation or in Latin Dianthus barbatus belongs to the family of cloves and is a native of the mountainous regions of southern Europe.
On garden plots the flower is grown as two-year-old. In the first year, he grows leaves and lush rosettes, and in the second year of life, he blooms in all its glory.
Small flowers of Turkish carnation are collected in bright lush inflorescences, fragrant pleasant aroma.
Each flower has four bracts with a shaggy border around the edge, resembling a beard. For this feature, the flower has acquired another name - "Bearded carnation".
Derived many varieties plants, both with simple and complex inflorescences, collected from double flowers.
Are meeting undersized (up to 20 cm tall) and tall (up to 80 cm in height) types of Turkish carnation. Most often, the flower is grown from seeds that are planted immediately in open ground or in a container for seedlings.
Cultivation of seeds in open ground
Seeds of Turkish Carnation as early as May or early June, it can be sown in open ground. Two weeks before planting it is necessary to prepare the soil.
It is necessary to dig, loosen and pour it, and then cover with foil. Place for a plant it is advisable to choose sunny or semi-shady with fertile soil rich in humus.
In cool weather, removing the film from the prepared soil, can proceed for planting seeds. It is necessary to make grooves, located at a distance of about 15 cm from each other, sow seeds in them and sprinkle them with earth.
Wherein seed spacing should be 2 or 3 cm, and planting depth - 1 cm. After sowing, moisten the soil with slightly warm water from the sprayer and cover it with non-woven material.
As a rule, shoots appear within 10 days. 18 or 20 days after germination must dive seedlings to a new place. Recommended distance between seedlings - about 7 cm, and the spacing between rows - 15 cm. Seedlings should be covered again with protective material. It is advisable to carry out a pick in the evening after 18 hours
In August young bushes carnations should be transplanted to a previously prepared permanent place. The distance between young plants should be about 30 cm.
Find out what environmental conditions the monstera is accustomed to at home - read our article.
Recommendations for growing balsam from seeds read in our material.
To protect against severe frosts it is necessary to cover the bed with cloves with spruce branches. Next year in June you will be able to admire the lush blossoms of the Turkish carnation.
You can also sow seeds plants in October for the winter, but always in a dry land. Seeds must also be dry.
Before frosts the bed with seeds should be covered with peat or 10 cm of humus. In springtime, emerged shoots should be covered from sunlight.
Growing seedlings from seed
Start off sowing seedlings Turkish carnation follows in March. It is desirable to prepare the soil for seeds independently from the following components:
- 2 parts peat,
- 1 part of river sand,
- 2 pieces of sod land.
Before landing it is necessary to steam or freeze the soil. Next, you should take care of the drainage layer and the holes in the bottom of the container. Then in the moist soil you need to sow the seeds, a little sanding them and placing them under the film.
Optimal temperature about 18 ° C and moderate watering are important conditions for successful emergence of shoots.
Seedlings with emerged shoots should be placed in a bright and cool place with a temperature of 12 ° C. It is advisable to provide seedlings additional lighting until mid-March.
After the appearance of these leaves you can dive seedlings in separate small containers. After the appearance of 5 leaves, you need to pinch the seedlings at the point of growth.
In the middle of April recommended to harden seedlings. To do this, if the weather permits, you need to make seedlings in the fresh air, protecting it from drafts.
In late May, you can plant plants in open ground, keeping between them a distance of about 30 cm.
Care for Turkish Carnation
To Turkish carnation pleasing to the eye abundant bloomone should not forget to weed, water and feed it in time, as well as loosen the soil around the plant.
Water the flowers preferably at least 2 times a week, and on hot days - more often. On 1 square meter of flower bed requires about 15 liters of water.
Feed cloves recommended three times per season. The first dressing should be carried out with mineral fertilizer after the flowers reach about 12 cm in height.
The second time the plant feeds during flowering liquid fertilizer for flowering plants. The third dressing is carried out at the end of the summer with potash-phosphate fertilizer.
Recommended Fertilizer Dosage - 1 tablespoon per 10 liters of water.
Pests and diseases
Turkish carnation attacked spider mites and aphids. When detecting pests need to treat plants with insecticides.
Due to waterlogging and stagnation of water possible root decay and outlets carnations. To prevent this from happening, it is necessary to loosen the ground around the plants more often and remove the affected shoots in time.
Also recommended several times during the season. process flowersfungicide.
Turkish carnations - truly unique flowers. They are so unpretentious that they will easily take root in every corner of the garden.
A bright and colorful carpet of Turkish carnations will add unique charm to floral arrangements and bring it into your garden. amazing holiday feeling.
For several years in a row I have been growing Turkish carnation in a bed near my house. All the household loved her for a variety of colors, unique flavor. I live in the Southern region, our winters are warm, so I do not warm the seedlings. I collect seeds in June - early July. In mid-August I sow in the ground, and in the spring I transplant seedlings to a permanent place. Turkish carnation does not require special care. For timely watering, feeding responds lush, abundant flowering.
Turkish carnation (Dianthus barbatus) has several names. Informally, it is sometimes called bearded. If you look closely, you can see that the flowers are surrounded by a large number of filamentous bracts that visually create a “beard” around the flower.
There is another name popular in Britain - Sweet william (in English version - Sweet William). The history of the origin of the nickname associated with the name William includes several versions. Shakespeare is “guilty” in one way, William the Conqueror is in the other, St. William of York in the third. There is a fourth theory, according to which everything is much simpler. Just the word "william" sounds like the French word "carnation" (oeillet).
Turkish Carnation - growing from seeds in open ground
When sowing seeds (spring or autumn) is one of the first questions that arises for novice gardeners. Considering that the Turkish carnation is an absolutely unpretentious plant, its seeds can be sown early in spring in open ground. The most suitable time for the middle band is the end of April.
Seeding is not forbidden in the fall. Dianthus barbatus breeds well and is self-sown - the seeds spilling out of the bolls in the fall will germinate safely the next year. But in this case, the emerged shoots will have to thin out. Sowing under the winter slightly delays the flowering period, but does not affect the quality of the inflorescences.
To seedlings were not thick, the seeds are sown in the furrows, which are at a distance of 15-20 cm. In the rows of optimal gaps between individual specimens of 15-20 cm. This is especially true for tall varieties. Seeds can be distributed and closer to each other - at a distance of only 5-7 cm. In this case, the excess young plants are dug up and transplanted to new beds when they reach a height of 8-10 cm. The embedding depth of seed germs is small - up to 1 cm.
No pre-treatment of the seeds before sowing is carried out, so these flowers are distinguished by good and amicable germination. There is only one feature - they sprout for a long time. However, this fact does not affect the subsequent development of plants.
If for some reason the annual shoots released flower stalks, then they are desirable to immediately cut. Otherwise, the plants will weaken and in the second year of life will not give the long-awaited abundant flowering.
How to store bulb flowers in winter
Growing carnation seedlings at home
This is another way to grow Turkish carnation. To form seedlings, seeds are sown in boxes or pots in February. If this is done not at home, but in greenhouses, then it is important to focus not on the calendar month, but on the air temperature. It should not be below 13 degrees. Shoots will appear in 2-3 weeks. Seedlings watered infrequently - once every 2-3 days. Pots with crooked shoots should stand on the sunny side.
To transplant seedlings of Turkish carnation without problems, it is recommended to feed it with nitrogen fertilizers. Very useful for seedlings and pre-hardened. For this, containers with young plants are daily taken out into the open air for 2-3 hours. In this case, young plants are easier to adapt to the open ground in the garden.
The deadline for replanting seedlings of Turkish carnation in open ground is the end of April. But in the case of a cold long spring, it is better not to hurry and plan a landing for May. When transplanting maintain a distance of 25 cm between the individual bushes.
When the carnation is propagated by Turkish seeds, cross-pollination and loss of varietal qualities are possible.
In order to preserve the purchased variety of Turkish carnation, it is better to use not the seed method of reproduction, but the vegetative - cuttings or layering. In the latter case, the stem of an adult plant is pressed to the soil surface, fixed with a hairpin and lightly sprinkled this place with moistened soil. If there is an inflorescence, then it is removed from the shoot.
Pinned place must be watered regularly so that the soil is always slightly wet. A month later, the layering will give strong young roots. After rooting the maternal shoot can be cut off, and a new bush can be transplanted to a new place.
For propagation by cuttings, only strong, well-developed shoots of the second year of life are suitable. The length of the cutting below the large node should be 5-7 cm. In this area, all the leaves are removed. Clove cuttings are placed in the lung soil mechanical composition.
When to plant Turkish carnation cuttings? It depends on full rooting. Usually this process takes 3-4 weeks. The cutting itself can be carried out in the summer, even during flowering. In this case, after planting in open ground, the carnation will have time to prepare for winter.
Planting cloves on the lunar calendar
According to the lunar calendar, it is recommended to plant the Turkish carnation (as well as many other colors) with the growing Moon when it passes the signs of Libra, Cancer, Scorpio, Pisces or Virgo.
In addition, you can take note of such a feature - planting a beautiful plant from the first quarter of the moon to the full moon leads to an abundance of seeds. Therefore, if you want to get a lot of high-grade carnation seed in the fall, plant it in the second lunar quarter.
Growing and caring for Turkish carnation
The experience of growing Dianthus barbatus in the garden shows that this flower crop is one of the most unpretentious. However, certain care rules must be observed. First of all, they relate to lighting, watering, soil and preparation for winter.
Best of all, a bearded carnation grows on sunny flower beds. It is not forbidden to plant it in slightly shaded areas. But in full shade under the canopy of trees or from the poorly lit side of the house it is better not to plant these flowers. The caps of the inflorescences will be small and loose.
Nutrient substrate can be any. This is one of the factors to which the stud is not picky. It feels well on poor rocky soils, and on nutrient grounds. The main thing - do not overdo it with nitrogen supplements. In this case, all the forces of the plant will be spent on building up phytomass, and not on flowering.
But what is important for a stranger from the East is the acidity of the soil. For this culture, a slightly alkaline pH is favorable - from 7 to 7.5. Therefore, on acidic soils, it is necessary to carry out liming before planting.
Turkish carnation does not need frequent watering. Even more - it may suffer from an excess of moisture. With constant waterlogging, the roots of plants rot and fusarium wilt develops. The frequency of watering can be safely limited to two times in 7-8 days.
To avoid problems with the leaves, a stream of water is directed under the root of the bushes. If you water the plants from the "soul", then the leaves may appear brown spot. Landings will lose their decorative look.
The health benefits of spicy cloves
Preparing for the winter
After flowering, if no seeds are needed, the flower stalks are cut. If there is a goal to get your own seed, then the fruit boxes remain until the seeds are fully mature. But then again - do not forget about the over-pollination of different varieties in the garden.
In the southern and middle latitudes, annual bushes of carnations can not be covered for the winter. The culture is moderate winter hardiness. But in the northern regions it is better to make an additional “blanket” of spruce branches or mulch.
In order to care for the Turkish carnation was complete and the summer labors were not in vain, it is advisable to plant plants that frighten rodents around the carnations before winter. Mice love to feast on its delicious stems, so in the spring the plot can meet you with an unsightly look. As a deterrent fit:
- black root
- sprigs of thuja
This makes gardening easier:
Liquid lawn - for those who want to quickly and easily create a beautiful lawn
Garden composter is a convenient and compact compost tank
Country shower - portable compact shower for giving and campaigns
Popular varieties and varieties
To date, breeders bred a tempting number of varieties of Turkish carnation. They differ from each other not only in color and size of the inflorescences, but also in the height of the plant itself. The last parameter is used for conditional division of all varieties into two groups: undersized (reach a maximum of 35 cm in height) and tall (capable of growing up to 60 cm).
- Heart attack. Inflorescences with a rich ruby color. In the center of each flower Hart Attac there is a small white speck. This feature creates a certain diversity in monoplanting flower beds.
- Diabunda. Due to its short stature and abundant branching, a variety is often grown not only in the open field, but also at home in a pot. Diabund may have different shades of flowers. The most popular are plants with cream, purple, bright and dark red caps.
- Festival. The height of the plants of the festival carnation rarely exceeds 25 cm. The color palette is very diverse: from pink and cream shades to rich purple and violet. Of the other dwarf varieties, the Pinocchio carnation is also known.
- Dash. This variety Dianthus barbatus is distinguished by its ability to grow as a perennial. Among the other attractive features stands the diversity of inflorescences. In the rainbow of colors Dash enters pale pink, scarlet, red, purple, lilac.
- WeeeWillie. This is perhaps the most squat variety of Turkish carnation. The height of the bushes reaches only 15 cm. It is convenient to use the plants for decoration of mini-rockeries and alpine lawns. Flowers are painted only in two colors: white and pink.
- DynastyOrchid. The beauty of this carnation is due to the terry of the flowers. The Orchid dynasty can be colored red or more subtle tones — pink and cream.
Low-growing carnation Turkish - varieties with photos and names
High and medium
- Messenger. The difference between the Messenger is the monochromaticity of the inflorescences. Within the variety there are plants in which the flowers are completely red or completely white. Insertions or drawing are completely excluded.
- Nigrescens. Under this name hides not one variety, but several at once. They are united by a non-standard almost black color. The most common variety in the gardens is Sooty. These medium-sized carnations (30-35 cm tall) have inflorescences of very dark colors with a red-violet tint. Reviews on the forums say that these varieties are among the most desirable for flower beds in the garden.
- GreenTrick(G.Ball). And this variety can be called the most unusual and original, since there are no real flowers of this carnation. A bright green hat is an overgrown perianth. Plant height is average - from 30 to 40 cm. Green Trick is rarely used in mono-bouquets, but it is very elegantly decorated with floral compositions.
Turkish high carnation - varieties with photos and names
Часто эти цветы продают под названием «Монпансье» — это смесь семян, из которых вырастают растения с различной окраской соцветий. It is in this motley form of a bearded carnation looks more impressive.
To learn some more subtleties on planting and caring for Turkish carnation in the open field, watch the useful video. From it you will learn how to preserve a beautiful carnation for the third year and thereby prolong its life and bloom.
Carnation Turkish Description
Turkish (or bearded) carnation is a perennial crop, but it is more often grown as a two-year-old because many varieties die off after two flowering seasons. The literal translation from the Greek is “the divine flower.” In total there are about 300 varieties of culture and an infinite number of hybrids and variety mixtures.
In the first season after planting, the plant forms a rosette of leaves; in the second, it starts flowering and produces seed. The bud has 5 petals and a long claw. The petal has a horizontal strip of pink or snow-white tone. One shrub is able to simultaneously form several inflorescences having about 30 flowers. Due to this bush becomes like a fluffy bunch. The seeds of the plant ripen in an elongated box with one nest.
Garden species are superior to wild brothers in beauty and diversity. Color variations and the shape of the buds are surprising in their diversity. Buds can be one-colored, two-colored, multi-colored, with a border and strokes, simple and terry texture. According to the visual association, the inflorescences are very similar to the Turkish ornament.
Coloring of buds has a wide range - from snow-white to dark-cherry tone. Each year, breeders produce new varietal species with unique colors. The height of the bush culture can be short (not higher than 35 cm) and tall (up to 90 cm).
The ability to give flowering under any climatic conditions made the flower in demand both in Europe and in other continents.
Among the variety of varieties of the most popular are:
- "Nigrakans". Resistant to frost and drought grade. Forms dense inflorescences of elegant dark cherry tone. This variety has an interesting feature: the foliage changes shade from green to burgundy as the bush ripens. Due to this bush begins to stand out from the rest of the inhabitants of the flower beds.
- "Little Willy." Low-growing variety in height does not exceed 15cm. It has dense inflorescences and multiple colors. Can be grown on the garden as well as in the pot. Shows excellent resistance to frosts.
- "Dynasty F1". Hybrid terry look. Low-growing bushes (up to 30 cm) can grow up to 50 cm in diameter. May bloom in the first year of growth, are immune to frost.
- "Nov. Kloin F1". Hybrid variety. Forms lush bushes, which helps to stand out even on the most populated flower garden. Each bud in the inflorescence has an individual color. Compared with most varieties has a rather long flowering. The species shows weakness to low temperatures.
- "Undine". The flower has a unique purple-black color with a snow-white edging. It is considered the achievement of breeders. After cutting it stays fresh for a long time.
- "Moulin rouge". It has an incredible aroma, which is associated with the southern coast of the sea. Due to the special coloring it seems that the inflorescences are spinning in a delightful dance. In height the bush reaches 20 cm and gives long flowering.
Soil mixture for seedlings
Each amateur gardener will be able to personally prepare the soil mixture for seedlings. Substrate requires three main components:
- peat (2 parts),
- turf ground (2 parts),
- river sand (1 part).
A few days before sowing, the soil should be decontaminated (either frozen or steamed). Freezing is the most accessible and simple method of disinfection. For the procedure, the soil is poured into small bags and maintained for 5 days at a temperature of about -15 degrees. If it is not possible to take the soil to frost, then you can put it in the freezer. Then the bags are transferred to heat for 7 days. After the cycle should be repeated. This scheme helps to destroy the weeds and larvae of parasites that wake up in heat and die when re-exposed to cold.
For disinfection by steaming it is necessary to put a bucket of water on fire. After boiling water on the bucket put a metal grill, on top of the bag with the soil. The soil is left to steam for 1-1.5 hours. After cooling, the earth is completely ready for use.
Sowing seeds for seedlings
Sowing carnations on seedlings is no different from other cultures. When growing seedlings at home, it is necessary to pickle the prepared home soil with a weak solution of manganese.
Seeds are placed in a container with prepared soil. It is important not to deepen the seeds too much, the maximum depth should not exceed 1 cm. If the dimensions of the container allow, then the landing should be done in rows, retreating 15 cm. If not, the rows are grouped closer, but not heavily flooded with water. Even with the smallest size of the container, you must follow the main rule - the distance between the seeds should not be less than 1.5 cm
Upon completion of sowing, the soil is slightly compacted, irrigated with water from room temperature at the top. Crops are covered with non-woven material to create a favorable climate.
A little bit about the Turkish carnation
Turkish carnation has the following description: it is a decorative two-year-old or perennial flower with densely flowering spherical buds of various shades. Petals are tender, are simple or terry. The color of the petals is the most diverse - there are monophonic species, and there are 3-4 shades combining in themselves. The color of the inflorescences is white, pink-white, raspberry-red, white-dark pink, white-gray-pink, white-purple, raspberry-white, red-burgundy, purple-white, maroon black, etc.
Leaves - narrow long lanceolate, with a characteristic green-blue tint. Stem - upright, strong, with a small knotty. The height of the Turkish carnation is short, up to 14-15 cm in height, and tall - 45-55 cm and even up to 65-70 cm in height.
Choosing a place to grow Turkish carnation
The plant is unpretentious and does not require any specific conditions for growing. Carnation Turkish equally suitable for growing in the garden, and in a flowerbed or in a large open flower garden. The only thing is that the flower does not like strong sun, and it is recommended to plant it so that in the afternoon the plant is in partial shade. Although in our climate, Turkish carnation grows well and tolerates summer heat and direct sunlight quite well. It is advisable to plant a plant on a certain elevation, on a site where rainwater will not stagnate.
Soil preparation before planting
Turkish carnation is one of the few flowers for which the soil, or rather its composition, does not matter much. But he loves sandy and sandy soils with weakly alkaline or neutral acidity. It is better, of course, if the soil is fertile, and if not - you can additionally fertilize it with organic matter or mineral fertilizers. The main thing is that the soil was well drained and there was no water stagnation. 2-3 weeks before sowing, dig a plot to a depth of 20-25 cm, and then carefully level it. If necessary, when digging, fertilizers are applied - these can be both mineral fertilizers, and compost, humus, and wood ash.
Sowing seeds of Turkish carnation in open groundThere are two periods when it is possible to sow Turkish carnation in open ground - early spring and mid-autumn. Before spring planting of seeds, usually it is the middle - the end of April, the soil is loosened and moistened. Lay the grooves with a depth of 1-1.5 cm, pour water over the depressions, sow the seeds, sprinkle with earth and pour it from a watering can with a sprayer. Or, they water the seeds themselves in the hole, sprinkle them, but do not water them, but cover them with a thick cloth or film before they begin to germinate. The distance between the seeds is 1.5-2 cm, the distance between the rows is at least 13-15 cm.
How to plant Turkish carnation seeds - soak them or not? Before planting seeds for several hours, you can soak in water at room temperature, but you can not do this. If, however, soaked, then, drain the water, you need to slightly dry the seeds with a towel, napkin, so that they do not stick together when sowing. In winter, the plant is sown in late September - early October.
Autumn crops for winter, warming, cover with spruce branches, straw, hay, which are removed in the spring.
Combination with other plantsTurkish carnation is combined with almost all perennial unpretentious flowers and herbs. Suitable for alpine slides, street pots, creating multi-color complex compositions in gardens and flower beds, decorating verandas and balconies. Looks great in a bouquet and is often used as a flower for a vase.
Watering, weeding and loosening the soil
Water the plant only as needed. And young crops of Turkish carnation, and adult plants fall ill and die from constant dampness.
Weeding is done if necessary, removing weeds and making a shallow loosening of the soil. Loosen the soil after each watering and fertilizing fertilizer.
When and how to conduct dressingTop dressing of the Turkish carnation is carried out to accelerate growth and friendly, abundant flowering. You can begin to fertilize sprouts that have reached a height of 8-10 cm. Use for this superphosphate, potassium sulfate or universal dressings for flowering plants. Once again, they feed the Turkish carnation at the very beginning of flowering when the buds appear. The dosages of all nutrient preparations are according to their instructions.
Diseases and pests of the Turkish carnation
Turkish carnation, like any other plant, is subject to certain pests and diseases. The main enemy is radical rot (Fusarium), which occurs due to the dampness of the soil. If the plant is sick, it is uprooted and burned, and the place is treated with a garden disinfectant-fungicide. There is also such a fungal disease of the Turkish carnation, as heterosporia - gray-red spotted lesions of the leaves. At the first signs, diseased plants are destroyed, and healthy ones are sprayed with Bordeaux liquid,
Breeding of Turkish carnations layersLayers do from two-year-old plants - lay the stems on the ground, sprinkle them with soil and, fixing, slightly tamped and moistened. At the same time, the tip of the sprinkled stem is left standing upright - for this, it is tied to a driven peg. The soil is watered, not allowing complete drying. After 1 - 1.5 months, a prikopanny stalk gives rooting, the resulting cuttings are separated from the uterine stalk and transplanted to a new site.
Basically, it's all about the Turkish carnation that you need to know for its breeding. With minimal effort during planting and care You will receive a magnificent blooming fragrant flower bed on your site.
Dianthus barbatus is a type of clove family and loves a temperate climate. In contrast to the Chinese carnation (Dianthus chinensis), the Turkish - a frequent inhabitant of flower gardens, front gardens of garden plots.
She, like her Chinese cousin, in the first year of life forms only bushes with rosettes of leaves. From the second, it starts simultaneously throwing out flower stalks and additional rosettes of leaves. This allows her to bloom in all its glory up to 4 years. However, flower growers, gardeners, inhabitants of private houses often grow these cultivated garden varieties as biennials.
The small flowers form umbrellas with lush, fragrant, bright inflorescences with a diameter of up to 15 cm. They are located on each stalk. In the flowers there are 4 bracts with a beardy shaggy border around the edges. They gave her the name "bearded".
Turkish carnation has a huge variety of colors of simple and double flowers. They can be red, crimson, maroon, pink, white or variegated with different shades, patterns in the form of rims, spots, strokes. Inflorescences with a very delicate aroma resemble large caps on the stems with leaves, which can also be painted in different colors. Probably, this bright color scheme of the petals is also associated with the ornament on Turkish carpets ...
Types and varieties with photos
Worldwide, there are about 400 different types of carnations with buds of different complexity. Only garden forms can be called about a hundred. The conditional criterion for determining the variety is the height of the stem, namely:
- Low-growing - up to 20 cm. Most often used as a ground-covering, balcony plants. Look great in rock gardens, bouquets.
- Tall - up to 80 cm. Thanks to its sturdy stems, they are often used for growing on beds and storage in cutting.
In the category of stunted varieties, the most common are the following:
- White carnation consists of small inflorescences in a large outlet, resembling a "bride" in a wedding dress. For many, this variety is associated with a miniature snow-white bunch. Even the small dark green leaves in its buds are completely invisible.
- Little willy with plentiful inflorescences of red, white, maroon, pink tones. They seem to be trimmed with "skirts", painted with strokes, dots, edges.
- Diabund F1 is a hybrid of Turkish and Chinese carnations with early abundant long flowering in six colors.
- Diadem has flowers of dark saturated tones with a dazzling white core.
- F1 dynasty has very branched stems with terry spherical inflorescences. Along with white. pink, scarlet colors stand out unusual purple and burgundy flowers. One of the few varieties that bloom in the first year.
- Nova F1 has original spherical unusually bright inflorescences with a diameter of up to 10 cm.
- Egyptian different bright maroon fragrant inflorescences with white rims. Leaves as if echoing the tones of flowers.
Among tall Turkish carnations, such varieties are very popular:
- Bearded has dense flattened colors monophonic and different colors. Differs pritchelkovye ciliated leaves, like beards.
- Black impresses with its maroon-black color of flowers and leaves. And yet, unlike his "relatives", he blooms in the first year after sowing.
- MacarenaF1 - This is a mixture of terry petals with contrasting rims and pith. Flowers have white, pink, burgundy, magenta colors.
- Heimatland with very beautiful flowers, rich in deep red.
Thanks to the efforts of breeders, new varieties also appear, variegated hybrids and monophonic varieties. Among them, it is worth noting the Scarlet Queen, Bayerr, the White Queen, Vice-Reisen, the Red Monarch, Kupferrot, the Summer Beauty, the Mirage, Newport Pink, the Color Pattern, etc.
Growing Turkish carnation from seeds
Breeding these flowers is not a big deal, especially compared to the joy of contemplating on their beds or in the house. It is grown, most often, with the help of seedlings. Here the main thing is to choose the soil mixture and the place for planting seedlings. We suggest first to get acquainted with the main points of preparing the soil for growing seedlings and providing care for them before disembarking for a permanent place of residence.
Preparation of soil mixture for seedlings
It consists in mixing 3 components: peat, river sand, sod land (proportions 2x1x2). After that, for the purpose of disinfection, it should be steamed and frozen. This is done quite simply. Initially, the soil is wrapped in a bag of thick natural fabric and placed for 5 days in a cold place with a temperature not lower than -15 ° C. Then this preform is transferred to heat for 5-7 days. This contrast allows weeds, parasite eggs to wake up. To destroy them, the soil mixture again returns to cold conditions for 5-6 days.
For repeated, more radical steaming, the grid with the frozen and still wrapped soil is hung over a bucket of water set on fire. This procedure lasts at least one and a half hours. After complete cooling of the contents of the bag, you can begin to use it.
Plant seeds for seedlings
This simple process is almost like sowing seeds of many crops. For planting in advance, a container is prepared with holes at the bottom, where a layer of drainage from fine gravel or river sand is placed. After that, the soil is placed in a container, slightly moistened, seeds are sown in rows. They are deepened into the ground by no more than 1 cm. The distance between them between the rows should be 15-20 cm.
The entire planting is lightly sprinkled with sand, sprayed with water at room temperature and placed under the film or any non-woven material. The optimal period for this is March-April in the evening.
It is allowed to dive young shoots three weeks later after emergence of shoots. Some seedlings can be left to grow in a container. The main thing is to keep at least 7 cm between the bushes. It is recommended to carry out a pick in the evening or in case of cloudy weather, protecting young plants from the direct rays of the sun. After the dive, the saplings are snatched again with nonwoven fabric.
Спустя две недели после пикировки, саженцы можно переносить на постоянное место, при этом соблюдая между посадками расстояние 20-30 см. Цветением культура порадует только на второй год своего роста. А на первом году культура усиленно формирует зелень и корневую систему. Для безопасной зимовки кустики рекомендуется укрыть ветками ели либо сосны.
Гвоздика турецкая однолетняя
В северных регионах турецкую красавицу выращивают как однолетнюю культуру, ведь лютые зимние морозы имеют свойство проверять зимние посадки на прочность. For such areas, the issue of growing carnations by the seedling method is particularly relevant.
Sowing can begin in February. Seeds are sown in large boxes, irrigated and covered with a single piece of glass. At observance of temperature condition at the level of +20 degrees the first shoots will appear quickly enough.
Also, young shoots need additional coverage. The northern regions have a fairly short light day, especially in winter. A lack of light will adversely affect the growth and development of seedlings. Despite the fact that the carnation can be considered a shade-tolerant plant, the proper amount of light is vital to it. Gardeners of the northern regions will have to get a good fitolampa.
Do not forget about the need for free space. With thick shoots, planting should be thinned. At the end of the month, the seedlings are swooping down and transplanted in separate containers. The bushes are transferred to the flowerbed only after the arrival of constant spring weather. Before planting seedlings, it is recommended to harden, accustomed to cool fresh air. Culture grown in this way produces flowering for the first year.
Growing seedlings in the open field
If you plan to grow seedlings in the open field, the recommended time is May-June. You should wait for the onset of warm weather, when the sun's rays only begin to gain strength. After all, the flower reacts badly to hot weather. Planting seeds in the evening is the best option. In addition, in light penumbra, seedlings will develop better.
Seed plants can safely survive the winter frosts, so they can be planted in the autumn. When autumn planting the first shoots will appear in the spring. When planted in open ground in the spring, from the time of sowing until the first shoots appear, a week passes.
Preparing a seedling site
The flower prefers spacious lighted areas. However, in the penumbra will also delight flowering. Fertile soil is required for proper growth and heavy flowering. In areas with sandy or clayey soil, fertilizer is added.
Fertilize the soil can be directly before planting, and when digging the site. Ash, humus and mineral fertilizers are used as fertilizers.
The selected bed is dug up to a depth of 20-30 cm. Then the surface is leveled and moistened. The prepared area must be covered with dense opaque matter and left for 10-14 days. After the time you can start planting seedlings.
Planted bushes under the scheme 20x30x35. With such a planting scheme, the plant will be able to firmly root before the arrival of the first frost. And with the onset of spring warm days will grow thickly, but evenly.
Rules for the care of Turkish carnation
Young bushes are sensitive to temperature extremes. This is especially acute in the early spring, when daytime sunshine heats flower stems, and at night there is a risk of recurrent frosts. To prevent the death of seedlings, a flowerbed is covered with spruce leaves. With the onset of steady warm weather, the spruce branches are removed.
At the end of flowering, the stems must be cut, and fertilizer should be applied to the soil. Such a manipulation will allow the bushes to catch up with new greens, and some varieties can even begin to re-form buds.
Turkish beauty reacts poorly to the stagnation of water in the soil and high humidity. Therefore, watering carried out 1-2 times per week. In the dry season, the amount of watering can be added. It is important to perform radical watering, because moisture that has got on the foliage and inflorescences, in sunlight can lead to burns and the death of the plant.
Young plantings need to weed regularly, at the same time removing all weeds. The biennial bush is no longer afraid of the neighborhood of weeds and covers the garden with a thick beautiful carpet.
Due to the intensive work of breeders, many varieties of carnation have been recently developed, affecting a variety of shapes and colors. Despite the apparent unpretentiousness, when growing a flower, it is necessary to follow the rules of cultivation.
Do not neglect the right choice of place for planting, because the flower will give a good growth only on fertile soil. The bed should be well lit and at the same time hidden from the scorching sun. The regularity and accuracy of watering directly affects healthy flowering.
Caring for a Turkish beauty does not cause much trouble. With regular monitoring of the plant, it is possible to determine in time the attack of the disease or pest. The carnation not only has a pleasant aroma, but is also an excellent addition to the design of a flower garden, and after studying the information on the subject: Turkish carnation from seeds and with a minimum of effort, you can get a flower garden that will please both live and in the photo.
- 1. Listen to the article (soon)
- 2. Description
- 3. Growing from seed
- 3.1. Sowing
- 3.2. Seedling care
- 4. Sowing in the ground
- 4.1. When to sow
- 4.2. How to plant
- 5. Care
- 5.1. How to care
- 5.2. Pests and diseases
- 6. Turkish carnation at home
- 7. Grades
Planting and care for the Turkish carnation (in brief)
- Bloom: from late June to late July.
- Landing: sowing seeds for seedlings at the end of March or at the beginning of April, planting seedlings in the ground in the second half of May. Sowing seeds directly in the ground - in late May or early June, as well as in October, but only dry seeds are sown before winter.
- Lighting: bright sunlight.
- The soil: fertile, sandy or loamy.
- Watering: 2 times a week, at a flow rate of 12-15 liters of water per 1 m² plot. In the hot and dry summer will have to water more often.
- Top dressing: three times per season: when seedlings grow to 10-12 cm, at the stage of formation of the first buds and during flowering. You can apply both mineral and organic solutions.
- Reproduction: seed - seedling and seedless.
- Pests: Bears and earwigs.
- Diseases: fusarium, rust and viral mottling.
Turkish Carnation Description
Turkish carnation is a herbaceous perennial grown in a two-year culture. It has straight, strong knobby stems 30-75 cm tall, bare, sessile lanceolate opposite leaves, green or blue-green with a reddish tinge, and numerous fragrant, double, semi-double or simple flowers with a diameter of 1.5 to 3 cm of different shades of white , red, pink, cream color - one-color, two-color, variegated, velvety, with a border or peephole. Collected flowers in corymbose inflorescence up to 12 cm in diameter, which opens in the second year of life and blooms within a month from the end of June. In the first year of the Turkish carnation forms only a rosette of leaves. The fruit of the plant is a box with black flat seeds that ripen by August and remain viable for 3 to 5 years. Turkish carnation is grown not only for landscaping, but also for cutting: its inflorescences are in water for up to two weeks.
Sowing Turkish Carnation.
If you decide to grow the Turkish carnation seedling method, then sowing is carried out in March or early April in the substrate, previously decontaminated dark pink solution of potassium permanganate. The substrate is made from sand and leaf humus in equal parts. Instead of sand you can take vermiculite. As a container, boxes or containers may be suitable, which before use must be cleaned with hot water and soda. At the bottom of the tank lay a layer of drainage, and placed on top of the wet substrate.
Seeds of Turkish carnation are sown to a depth of 1 cm, spreading them at a distance of 2-3 cm from each other. Crops are covered with loose white paper and kept at a temperature of 16-18 ºC, from time to time moistening the substrate from a spray bottle with water at room temperature.
Care for seedlings of Turkish carnation.
As soon as shoots appear, crops are transferred as close as possible to the light, and the temperature of the content is lowered by 2-3 degrees so that the seedlings are not stretched. It is likely that you will have to arrange additional lighting for the seedlings, as the plants need a lot of light. At the stage of forming the second pair of true leaves, seedlings dive into peat pots with a mixture of the same composition that you sowed the seeds into. Care for seedlings of the Turkish carnation consists of regular watering and careful loosening of the substrate around the seedlings.
Seedlings are planted in the open ground in the second half of May, when warm weather is established, but before planting the Turkish carnation seedlings should undergo tempering procedures: they daily take out the crops to the open air, gradually increasing the duration of the session. At first half an hour is enough, but in two weeks the Turkish carnation from the seeds should get used to the new environment so that it can be safely planted on a flower bed.
When sowing Turkish carnation in open ground.
Flowers of the Turkish carnation can be sown directly in the garden, bypassing the stage of growing seedlings. When to plant Turkish carnation in the ground? At the end of May or at the beginning of June, when the soil warms up and passes the threat of recurrent frosts. It is possible to sow seeds of Turkish carnation in October, but do not forget that any autumn sowing should be done with dry seeds, and the soil should also be dry. In the fall, crops are mulched with peat or sawdust, and in the spring mulch is harvested.
How to plant Turkish carnation in the garden.
Choose a sunny plot for the plant with a fertile soil, preferably sandy or loamy. One or two weeks before sowing the soil on the site needs to be dug up to a depth of 20-25 cm with simultaneous introduction of compost or humus and wood ash at the rate of 6-8 kg of organic matter and 200-300 g of ash per 1 m² plot. Mineral fertilizers can also be applied: a tablespoon of Nitrophoska and a teaspoon of Agricola for flowering plants to the same unit of area. After digging the area covered with plastic wrap.
When it comes time to sow a carnation, the film is removed, grooves are made 1-1.5 cm deep at a distance of 15 cm from each other, they are well shed with water, and then the seeds are laid out with a step of 2-3 cm. After seeding the surface slightly compacted and covered with a non-woven fabric before germination.
How to care for Turkish carnation.
Garden Turkish carnation needs regular watering: 2 times a week at a rate of 12-15 liters per m² plot. If the summer is dry and hot, then water will have to more often. Try to pour water on the ground so that the jet does not fall on the plant itself, otherwise it can get a sunburn. However, if the carnation grows in the hollow, be careful with the watering, otherwise the plant may become sick with root rot from excessive moisture: as soon as you find that the Turkish carnation resets the rosettes, treat it with a solution of 40 g of HOM in 10 liters of water.
Growing Turkish carnation involves applying fertilizer to the soil. The first dressing is carried out when the seedlings reach a height of 10-12 cm. As a fertilizer, use a solution of one tablespoon of Nitrophoska and one tablespoon of Agricola Forward in 10 liters of water. The next time the plant is fed in the stage of the formation of the first buds: in 10 l of water diluted with a tablespoon of superphosphate and potassium sulfate. During flowering, a solution of 1 tablespoon Agricola for flowering plants in 10 liters of water is introduced into the soil.
After watering, rain and fertilization, the soil around the plants should be loosened to prevent the rapid evaporation of moisture. Do not forget also to remove weeds in a timely manner and cut off faded stems at a height of 10-15 cm from the ground: in a month new shoots will sprout from the carnation, and by the autumn it can bloom again.
A perennial Turkish carnation is a frost-resistant plant, but it is better to endure winter under a layer of peat or humus 8-10 cm thick. Generally, under favorable conditions and good care, the life span of a perennial carnation is 5-6 years, and under less successful circumstances - on the strength of 2 -3 years.
Turkish cloves at home
Unlike other types of carnations, which are plants of a long daylight hours, home Turkish carnation can grow in partial shade without detriment to health and decoration. The optimum temperature for the plant is 15-18 ºC.
The soil of the Turkish carnation needs a fertile, neutral reaction, for example, a mixture of leafy earth, sand, peat and sod land in a ratio of 1: 1: 1: 2. Before planting, the mixture is disinfected. During transplantation, the root collar should remain at the level of the surface of the site. For the formation of a lush bush, the young carnation is pinched as soon as 5-7 pairs of leaves are formed.
It is necessary to water a carnation plentifully - the earthen room in a pot should not dry. Water used for irrigation is soft, at room temperature. In the evening, in the hot summer, Turkish carnation is sprayed.
Starting from one month of age, a carnation is fed every ten days with complex mineral fertilizer for flowering plants. Dilute the fertilizer in water with the addition of milk and sprinkle this solution on the soil in the spray pot. Top dressing bring from spring to October, in winter the plant is not fed.
Spider mites, aphids and mealybugs can infect a Turkish clove at home. Wash the pests with soapy water, then spray the plant with infusion of tansy, celandine or yarrow, but if these measures do not work, treat the Turkish carnation with Aktellik, Aktar or another insecticaricide.
Turkish Carnation Grades
The most common varieties of Turkish carnation are:
- – Diadem - bushes up to 45 cm in height with shoots and leaves of dark green color with a red shade and dark red knots. Dark carmine flowers with a large white eye and jagged petals along the edge are collected in an inflorescence with a diameter of up to 10 cm,
- – Scarlet Beauty - bushes with a height of 45-50 cm with dark green leaves and shoots and bright red flowers with a diameter of 23 mm with jagged petals along the edge,
- – Heimathland - bushes up to 50 cm high with shoots and leaves of dark green color with dark red shade. The flowers are dark red with a diameter of 2 cm with an eye and petals deep-toothed along the edge. Inflorescences in this variety with a diameter of up to 12 cm
- – Lahskenigin - a variety about 45 cm high with large buds of salmon-pink flowers,
- – Schneebal - white Turkish carnation up to 40 cm high with green leaves and shoots. Terry flowers with jagged edges of petals are collected in inflorescences up to 11 cm in diameter,
- – Weiss Riesen - bushes up to half a meter with green leaves and shoots and white flowers with a diameter of up to 25 mm, gathered in inflorescences up to 12 cm in diameter,
- – Kupferrot - bushes up to half a meter with dark green leaves and shoots and copper-red flowers with a diameter of up to 22 mm with jagged edges. Inflorescences reach a diameter of 9-10 cm,
- – Egyptian - a variety up to 60 cm in height with narrow maroon leaves and bright maroon flowers with a white border,
- – Undine - this variety has purple flowers with a white center and a white border.
Popularity was won also by the Holland type, a group of varieties about 60 cm high with branched stems and many-flowered inflorescences up to 12 cm in diameter. In cutting the flowers of this series are up to two weeks:
- – Czardas - a variety with dense inflorescences consisting of scarlet flowers,
- – Mazurka - a variety with white simple flowers with a pink ring,
- – Midget - dwarf variety with dark red flowers,
- – Flaming heart - compact bushes of medium height with bright red buds,
- – Ember - variety up to 65 cm in height with multi-flowered inflorescences of black-raspberry-purple flowers with white stamens.
Among the growers are also English variety mixes Wee Willie, Rondeau and Roundabout - plants that reach a height of 15-20 cm. Of particular interest is the Nigrikens variety with dark purple leaves and stems and very dark flowers. Of the novelties, breeders from the Netherlands offer a series of varieties of Novurna 40-45 cm high with large simple flowers of various colors, collected in spherical inflorescences, which appear already in the first year after sowing.
Growing Turkish carnation from seed through seedlings
Turkish carnation is grown from seed using a seedling method. Growing a Turkish carnation is a rather hassle-free occupation that even a novice gardener can handle. The main thing in this - the right choice of soil and place for seedlings. It is these factors that influence the full development and flowering of the Turkish carnation.
When to plant seedlingsGrowing Turkish carnation through seedlings depends on weather conditions. If you plan to plant seeds for seedlings, then it is best to do in March and April. If you plan to plant the seeds immediately in open ground, then the best time will be the end of spring - the beginning of summer. It is best to wait for the onset of cool weather when the sun is just starting to get hot, because the Turkish carnation does not like the heat. Evening hours are the best time for planting seedlings. Cultivation is best held in light partial shade.
Dive seedlings of carnationsDive seedlings of Turkish carnation can be carried out 20 days after planting seeds. You can leave a certain number of sprouts in a container, but remember that the distance between them should be no less than 7 cm. The pickling of seedlings of the Turkish carnation should be done in the evening or on a cloudy day, in weak sunlight. После пикировки рассады ее необходимо заново укрыть нетканым материалом.
Высадка рассады турецкой гвоздики на постоянное место
Крайне важно, чтобы расстояние между сеянцами составляло 20-30 см, поскольку при густой посадке им будет не хватать питательных веществ. Unfortunately, it will be possible to admire the splendor of flowering Turkish carnations only next year, because in the first season the plant bush is distilled. In winter, young clove bushes can be covered with spruce branches (the lower branches of evergreen trees, for example, fir trees or pines). Under good conditions, Turkish carnation blooms in June next year.
Selection and preparation of a landing siteExperienced gardeners, before growing Turkish carnation, begin to carefully prepare the site for planting. The Turkish carnation prefers open solar sites, but can grow in a small penumbra. For the cultivation of Turkish carnation requires a plot with fertile soil. If the site for planting consists of loamy or sandy soil, then it must be treated with fertilizers. Fertilizers are applied before planting and when digging the soil. For this you can use humus, compost, ash or any mineral fertilizers. Do not dig too deep a future garden bed, 25-30 cm is enough. Next, the soil needs to be leveled and moistened. Cover the prepared area with a thick cloth for two weeks, and then proceed to planting.
Planting plantation seedlings
Before you plant Turkish carnation, you must choose a landing pattern. Use classical for Turkish carnation scheme: 20 × 30-35. This scheme allows the plant to take root well before the onset of cold weather, and when warming, the carnation will grow quite lushly, but at the same time evenly.
Watering, weeding and loosening the soil
Turkish carnation, like other types of carnation, does not tolerate overmoistening of the soil and stagnant water. Watering cloves should be carried out 1-2 times a week. Dry summer the amount of watering can be increased. Watering the carnation should be at the root, because water droplets on the flowers can cause them to fade and wilt in the sun.
Weeding and loosening the soil must be combined with the removal of weeds, because they interfere with the plant to fully develop. Only a young carnation plant needs regular weeding. The adult carnation is able to restrain the growth of weeds, covering the soil with a dense carpet.
Secrets of a long bloom
In order for the Turkish carnation to please the eye with bright and abundant flowering, you should follow three basic rules - water in time, thoroughly weed and properly feed the plant.
When sowing seeds of Turkish carnation immediately into the open ground, a rather powerful rosette can form (short stem with closely spaced leaves). If after flowering to remove flower stalks of carnations, then the socket will give new shoots that will bloom magnificently next year. You can also cut the cuttings and after the flowering of carnations, plant them for rooting. Before the onset of winter on these cuttings grow new outlet.
Wintering carnationsDespite the fact that the Turkish carnation is quite cold-resistant plant, he needs an extra layer of any breathable material. In the latitudes with harsh winter, the soil around the bushes should be mulched using peat (layer thickness not less than 10 cm). When spring comes, the shelter is not removed even after the snow melts, since the plant is still at rest. Wait for the moment when the plant begins to grow, and then remove the shelter. When the snow melts, you can make small drainage channels, and this will save the carnation from the destructive stagnation of moisture.
Turkish Carnation in Landscape Design
The incredible beauty of the plant's flowers allows you to create bright and spectacular borders. Also the Turkish carnation can be used as lawn. Bright hats look great between garden paths and sidewalks, they can be decorated retaining walls.
Often decorated with Turkish carnation flowers alpine slides. The variegated carnation flowers combined with blood-red geraniums make it possible to diversify landscape original monophonic duet.In the application of Turkish carnation in landscape design, it all depends on your imagination. If you lack inspiration, you can always draw ideas on the Internet and create original floral arrangements.